0
Research Papers

Wind Climate Parameters for Wind Turbine Fatigue Load Assessment

[+] Author and Article Information
Henrik Stensgaard Toft

Department of Civil Engineering,
Aalborg University,
Sofiendalsvej 11,
Aalborg SV 9200, Denmark
e-mail: hst@civil.aau.dk

Lasse Svenningsen, Morten Lybech Thøgersen

EMD International A/S,
Niels Jernes Vej 10,
Aalborg 9220, Denmark

Wolfgang Moser

Nordex Energy GmbH,
Langenhorner Chaussee 600,
Hamburg 22419, Germany

John Dalsgaard Sørensen

Department of Civil Engineering,
Aalborg University,
Sofiendalsvej 11,
Aalborg SV 9200, Denmark

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Solar Energy Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF SOLAR ENERGY ENGINEERING: INCLUDING WIND ENERGY AND BUILDING ENERGY CONSERVATION. Manuscript received August 2, 2015; final manuscript received March 14, 2016; published online April 5, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Yves Gagnon.

J. Sol. Energy Eng 138(3), 031010 (Apr 05, 2016) (8 pages) Paper No: SOL-15-1245; doi: 10.1115/1.4033111 History: Received August 02, 2015; Revised March 14, 2016

Site-specific assessment of wind turbine design requires verification that the individual wind turbine components can survive the site-specific wind climate. The wind turbine design standard, IEC 61400-1 (third edition), describes how this should be done using a simplified, equivalent wind climate established from the on-site distribution functions of the horizontal mean wind speeds, the 90% quantile of turbulence along with average values of vertical wind shear and air density and the maximum flow inclination. This paper investigates the accuracy of fatigue loads estimated using this equivalent wind climate required by the current design standard by comparing damage equivalent fatigue loads estimated based on wind climate parameters for each 10 min time-series with fatigue loads estimated based on the equivalent wind climate parameters. Wind measurements from Boulder, CO, in the United States and Høvsøre in Denmark have been used to estimate the natural variation in the wind conditions between 10 min time periods. The structural wind turbine loads have been simulated using the aero-elastic model FAST. The results show that using a 90% quantile for the turbulence leads to an accurate assessment of the blade root flapwise bending moment and a conservative assessment of the tower bottom for-aft bending moment and low speed shaft torque. Currently, IEC 61400-1 (third edition) neglects the variation in wind shear by using the average value. This may lead to a nonconservative assessment of blade root flapwise fatigue loads, which are sensitive to wind shear. The results in this paper indicate that using a 75% quantile for the wind shear at each wind speed bin leads to an appropriate, but conservative, assessment of the fatigue loads. However, care should be taken when using this approach for components where low or negative wind shears can lead to large fatigue loads. This is the case for some drivetrain components where a lower quantile may be required.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2016 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

IEC Technical Committee 88, 2010, “ Wind Turbines—Part 1 Design Requirements,” 3rd ed., International Electrotechnical Commission, Geneva, Switzerland, International Standard IEC 61400-1.
Ronold, K. O. , and Christensen, C. J. , 2001, “ Optimization of a Design Code for Wind-Turbine Rotor Blades in Fatigue,” Eng. Struct., 23(8), pp. 993–1004. [CrossRef]
Moriarty, P. J. , Holley, W. E. , and Butterfield, S. P. , 2004, “ Extrapolation of Extreme and Fatigue Loads Using Probabilistic Methods,” National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO, Report No. NREL/TP-500-34421.
Sathe, A. , Mann, J. , Barlas, T. , Bierbooms, W. A. A. M. , and van Bussel, G. J. W. , 2013, “ Influence of Atmospheric Stability on Wind Turbine Loads,” Wind Energy, 16(7), pp. 1013–1032. [CrossRef]
Dimitrov, N. , Natarajan, A. , and Kelly, M. , 2015, “ Model of Wind Shear Conditional on Turbulence and Its Impact on Wind Turbine Loads,” Wind Energy, 18(11), pp. 1917–1931. [CrossRef]
Kelly, M. , Larsen, G. , Dimitrov, N. K. , and Natarajan, A. , 2014, “ Probabilistic Meteorological Characterization for Turbine Loads,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser., 524(1), p. 012076.
Clifton, A. , Schreck, S. , Scott, G. , Kelley, N. , and Lundquist, J. K. , 2013, “ Turbine Inflow Characterization at the National Wind Technology Center,” ASME J. Sol. Energy Eng., 135(3), p. 031017. [CrossRef]
NREL, 2015 “  NWTC Information Portal,” National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO, https://wind.nrel.gov/MetData/
Penã, A. , Floors, R. , Sathe, A. , Gryning, S. , Wagner, R. , Courtney, M. S. , Larsen, X. G. , Hahmann, A. N. , and Hasager, C. B. , 2015, “ Ten Years of Boundary-Layer and Wind-Power Meteorology at Høvsøre, Denmark,” Boundary-Layer Meteorol., 158(1), pp. 1–26. [CrossRef]
Jonkman, J. , Butterfield, S. , Musial, W. , and Scott, G. , 2009, “ Definition of a 5-MW Reference Wind Turbine for Offshore System Development,” National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO, Report No. NREL/TP-500-38060.
Jonkman, J., 2015, “FAST: An Aeroelastic Computer-Aided Engineering (CAE) Tool for Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines,” National Wind Technology Center (NWTC), National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO.
Kelley, N., and Jonkman, B., 2016, “TurbSim: A Stochastic, Full-Field, Turbulence Simulator Primarialy for Use With InflowWind/AeroDyn-Based Simulation Tools,” National Wind Technology Center (NWTC), National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO.
ASTM, 2011, “ Standard Practice for Cycle Counting in Fatigue Analysis,” ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, ASTM Standard No. E1049-85.
Miner, M. A. , 1945, “ Cumulative Damage in Fatigue,” ASME J. Appl. Mech., 12(3), pp. A159–A164.
Box, G. E. P. , and Wilson, K. B. , 1951, “ On the Experimental Attainment of Optimum Conditions,” J. R. Stat. Soc., Ser. B, 13(1), pp. 1–45.
Toft, H. S. , Svenningsen, L. , Moser, W. , Sørensen, J. D. , and Thøgersen, M. L. , 2016, “ Assessment of Wind Turbine Structural Integrity Using Response Surface Methodology,” Eng. Struct., 106, pp. 471–483. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Distribution of mean wind speed for measurements

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Mean and std. dev. for wind speed standard deviation

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Mean and std. dev. for wind shear

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Mean and std. dev. for air density

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Variation of damage equivalent loads with mean wind speed and reference turbulence intensity, wind shear, and air density. Names of load sensors are listed in Table 2.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Wind measurements from Boulder and Høvsøre with statistical parameters

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In