0
Research Papers

A Field Study of a Low-Flow Internally Cooled/Heated Liquid Desiccant Air Conditioning System: Quasi-Steady and Transient Performance

[+] Author and Article Information
Ahmed H. Abdel-Salam

Mem. ASME
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Saskatchewan,
57 Campus Drive,
Saskatoon, SK S7N 5A9, Canada
e-mail: ahmed.abdel-salam@usask.ca

Chris McNevin

Department of Mechanical and
Materials Engineering,
Queen's University,
McLaughlin Hall,
Kingston, ON K7L 3N6, Canada
e-mail: 7cnrm@queensu.ca

Lisa Crofoot

Department of Mechanical and
Materials Engineering,
Queen's University,
McLaughlin Hall,
Kingston, ON K7L 3N6, Canada
e-mail: lisa.crofoot@gmail.com

Stephen J. Harrison

Department of Mechanical and
Materials Engineering,
Queen's University,
McLaughlin Hall,
Kingston, ON K7L 3N6, Canada
e-mail: harrison@me.queensu.ca

Carey J. Simonson

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Saskatchewan,
57 Campus Drive,
Saskatoon, SK S7N 5A9, Canada
e-mail: carey.simonson@usask.ca

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Solar Energy Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF SOLAR ENERGY ENGINEERING: INCLUDING WIND ENERGY AND BUILDING ENERGY CONSERVATION. Manuscript received June 29, 2015; final manuscript received March 6, 2016; published online April 5, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Jorge E. Gonzalez.

J. Sol. Energy Eng 138(3), 031009 (Apr 05, 2016) (14 pages) Paper No: SOL-15-1202; doi: 10.1115/1.4033026 History: Received June 29, 2015; Revised March 06, 2016

The field performance of a low-flow internally cooled/heated liquid desiccant air conditioning (LDAC) system is investigated in this paper. The quasi-steady performance (sensible and latent heat transfer rates, coefficient of performance (COP), and uncertainties) of the LDAC system is quantified under different ambient air conditions. A major contribution of this work is a direct comparison of the transient and quasi-steady performance of the LDAC system. This paper is the first to quantify the importance of transients and shows that, for the environmental and operating conditions in this paper, transients can be neglected when estimating the energy consumption of the LDAC system. Another major contribution of this work is the development and verification of a new method that quantifies (with acceptable uncertainties) the quasi-steady performance of a LDAC system from transient field data using average data.

Copyright © 2016 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Katejanekarn, T. , Chirarattananon, S. , and Kumar, S. , 2009, “ An Experimental Study of a Solar-Regenerated Liquid Desiccant Ventilation Pre-Conditioning System,” Sol. Energy, 83(6), pp. 920–933. [CrossRef]
Zhang, L. , Dang, C. , and Hihara, E. , 2010, “ Performance Analysis of a No-Frost Hybrid Air Conditioning System With Integrated Liquid Desiccant Dehumidification,” Int. J. Refrig., 33(1), pp. 116–124. [CrossRef]
Liu, X. H. , Chang, X. M. , Xia, J. J. , and Jiang, Y. , 2009, “ Performance Analysis on the Internally Cooled Dehumidifier Using Liquid Desiccant,” Build. Environ., 44(2), pp. 299–308. [CrossRef]
Pineda, S. M. , and Diaz, G. , 2011, “ Performance of an Adiabatic Cross-Flow Liquid-Desiccant Absorber Inside a Refrigerated Warehouse,” Int. J. Refrig., 34(1), pp. 138–147. [CrossRef]
Niu, X. , Xiao, F. , and Ma, Z. , 2012, “ Investigation on Capacity Matching in Liquid Desiccant and Heat Pump Hybrid Air-Conditioning Systems,” Int. J. Refrig., 35(1), pp. 160–170. [CrossRef]
Enteria, N. , Yoshino, H. , Takaki, R. , Mochida, A. , Satake, A. , and Yoshie, R. , 2013, “ Effect of Regeneration Temperatures in the Exergetic Performances of the Developed Desiccant-Evaporative Air-Conditioning System,” Int. J. Refrig., 36(8), pp. 2323–2342. [CrossRef]
Dai, Y. J. , Wang, R. Z. , Zhang, H. F. , and Yu, J. D. , 2001, “ Use of Liquid Desiccant Cooling to Improve the Performance of Vapor Compression Air Conditioning,” Appl. Therm. Energy, 21(12), pp. 1185–1202. [CrossRef]
Gommed, K. , and Grossman, G. , 2007, “ Experimental Investigation of a Liquid Desiccant System for Solar Cooling and Dehumidification,” Sol. Energy, 81(1), pp. 131–138. [CrossRef]
Katejanekarn, T. , and Kumar, S. , 2008, “ Performance of a Solar-Regenerated Liquid Desiccant Ventilation Pre-Conditioning System,” Energy Build., 40(7), pp. 1252–1267. [CrossRef]
Mohammad, A. T. , Mat, S. B. , Sulaiman, M. Y. , Sopian, K. , and Al-abidi, A. A. , 2013, “ Historical Review of Liquid Desiccant Evaporation Cooling Technology,” Energy Build., 67, pp. 22–33. [CrossRef]
Mei, L. , and Dai, Y. J. , 2008, “ A Technical Review on Use of Liquid-Desiccant Dehumidification for Air-Conditioning Application,” Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev., 12(3), pp. 662–689. [CrossRef]
Misha, S. , Mat, S. , Ruslan, M. H. , and Sopian, K. , 2012, “ Review of Solid/Liquid Desiccant in the Drying Applications and Its Regeneration Methods,” Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev., 16(7), pp. 4686–4707. [CrossRef]
Abdel-Salam, A. H. , and Simonson, C. J. , 2016, “ State-of-the-Art in Liquid Desiccant Air Conditioning Equipment and Systems,” Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev., 58, pp. 1152–1183. [CrossRef]
Kozubal, E. , Herrmann, L. , Deru, M. , Clark, J. , and Lowenstein, A. , 2014, “ Low-Flow Liquid Desiccant Air-Conditioning: Demonstrated Performance and Cost Implications,” National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO, Technical Report No. NREL/TP-5500-60695.
Abdel-Salam, A. H. , Ge, G. , and Simonson, C. J. , 2013, “ Performance Analysis of a Membrane Liquid Desiccant Air-Conditioning System,” Energy Build., 62, pp. 559–569. [CrossRef]
Abdel-Salam, A. H. , Ge, G. , and Simonson, C. J. , 2014, “ Thermo-Economic Performance of a Solar Membrane Liquid Desiccant Air Conditioning,” Sol. Energy, 102, pp. 56–73. [CrossRef]
Abdel-Salam, M. R. H. , Fauchoux, M. T. , Ge, G. , Besant, R. W. , and Simonson, C. J. , 2014, “ Expected Energy and Economic Benefits, and Environmental Impacts for Liquid-to-Air Membrane Energy Exchangers (LAMEEs) in HVAC Systems: A Review,” Appl. Energy, 127, pp. 202–218. [CrossRef]
Abdel-Salam, M. R. H. , Ge, G. , Fauchoux, M. , Simonson, C. J. , and Besant, R. W. , 2014, “ State-of-the-Art in Liquid-to-Air Membrane Energy Exchangers (LAMEEs): A Comprehensive Review,” Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev., 39, pp. 700–728. [CrossRef]
Abdel-Salam, A. H. , and Simonson, C. J. , 2014, “ Annual Evaluation of Energy, Environmental and Economic Performances of a Membrane Liquid Desiccant Air Conditioning System With/Without ERV,” Appl. Energy, 116, pp. 134–148. [CrossRef]
Abdel-Salam, A. H. , and Simonson, C. J. , 2014, “ Capacity Matching in Heat-Pump Membrane Liquid Desiccant Air Conditioning Systems,” Int. J. Refrig., 48, pp. 166–177. [CrossRef]
Bergero, S. , and Chiari, A. , 2011, “ On the Performances of a Hybrid Air-Conditioning System in Different Climatic Conditions,” Energy, 36(8), pp. 5261–5273. [CrossRef]
Ge, G. , Moghaddam, D. G. , Abdel-Salam, A. H. , Besant, R. W. , and Simonson, C. J. , 2014, “ Comparison of Experimental Data and a Model for Heat and Mass Transfer Performance of a Liquid-to-Air Membrane Energy Exchanger (LAMEE) When Used for Air Dehumidification and Salt Solution Regeneration,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 68, pp. 119–131. [CrossRef]
Lowenstein, A. , 1994, “ Low-Flow Internally-Cooled Liquid-Desiccant Absorber,” U.S. Patent No. 5,351,497.
Lowenstein, A. , Slayzak, S. , and Kozubal, E. , 2006, “ A Zero Carryover Liquid-Desiccant Air Conditioner for Solar Applications,” ASME Paper No. ISEC2006-99079.
Zhang, T. , Liu, X. , Jiang, J. , Chang, X. , and Jiang, Y. , 2013, “ Experimental Analysis of an Internally-Cooled Liquid Desiccant Dehumidifier,” Build. Environ., 63, pp. 1–10. [CrossRef]
Yin, Y. , Zhang, X. , Wang, G. , and Luo, L. , 2008, “ Experimental Study on a New Internally Cooled/Heated Dehumidifier/Regenerator of Liquid Desiccant Systems,” Int. J. Refrig., 31(5), pp. 857–866. [CrossRef]
Yin, Y. , and Zhang, X. , 2010, “ Comparative Study on Internally Heated and Adiabatic Regenerators in Liquid Desiccant Air Conditioning System,” Build. Environ., 45(8), pp. 1799–1807. [CrossRef]
Bansal, P. , Jain, S. , and Moon, C. , 2011, “ Performance Comparison of an Adiabatic and an Internally Cooled Structured Packed-Bed Dehumidifier,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 31(1), pp. 14–19. [CrossRef]
Ali, A. , Vafai, K. , and Khaled, A.-R. A. , 2003, “ Comparative Study Between Parallel and Counter Flow Configurations Between Air and Falling Desiccant in the Presence of Nanoparticle Suspensions,” Int. J. Energy Res., 27(8), pp. 725–745. [CrossRef]
Qi, R. , Lu, L. , and Qin, F. , 2014, “ Model Development for the Wetted Area of Falling Film Liquid Desiccant Air-Conditioning System,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 74, pp. 206–209. [CrossRef]
Qi, R. , Lu, L. , Yang, H. , and Qin, F. , 2013, “ Investigation on Wetted Area and Film Thickness for Falling Film Liquid Desiccant Regeneration System,” Appl. Energy, 112, pp. 93–101. [CrossRef]
Mesquita, L. C. , 2007, “ Analysis of a Flat-Plate Liquid-Desiccant Dehumidifier and Regenerator,” Ph.D. thesis, Queen's University, Kingston, ON.
Mesquita, L. C. S. , Harrison, S. J. , and Thomey, D. , 2006, “ Modeling of Heat and Mass Transfer in Parallel Plate Liquid-Desiccant Dehumidifiers,” Sol. Energy, 80(11), pp. 1475–1482. [CrossRef]
Jones, B. M. , 2008, “ Field Evaluation and Analysis of a Liquid Desiccant Air Handling System,” M.Sc. thesis, Queen's University, Kingston, ON, Canada.
Crofoot, L. , and Harrison, S. , 2012, “ Performance Evaluation of a Liquid Desiccant Solar Air Conditioning System,” Energy Procedia, 30, pp. 542–550. [CrossRef]
Crofoot, L. , McNevin, C. , and Harrison, S. , 2014, “ Performance Evaluation of a Liquid-Desiccant Solar Air-Conditioning System,” ISES EuroSun International Conference on Solar Energy and Buildings, Aix-les-Bains, France, Sept. 16–19.
Crofoot, L. , 2012, “ Experimental Evaluation and Modeling of a Solar Liquid Desiccant Air Conditioner,” M.Sc. thesis, Queen's University, Kingston, ON, Canada.
Andrusiak, M. , Harrison, S. , and Mesquita, L. , 2010, “ Modeling of a Solar Thermally-Driven Liquid-Desiccant Air-Conditioning System,” 39th ASES National Solar Conference (SOLAR 2010), Phoenix, AZ, May 17–22, pp. 1722–1747.
Andrusiak, M. , and Harrison, S. J. , 2009, “ The Modeling and Design of a Solar-Driven Liquid-Desiccant Air-Conditioning System,” 4th Annual Canadian Solar Buildings Conference, Toronto, Canada, pp. ▪–▪.
Andrusiak, M. , and Harrison, S. J. , 2010, “ The Modeling of a Solar Thermally-Driven Liquid-Desiccant Air-Conditioning System,” 39th ASES National Conference (SOLAR 2010), Phoenix, AZ, May 11–16, pp. 1722–1747.
Salimizad, D. , McNevin, C. , and Harrison, S. , 2014, “ Evaluation of Cooling Water Storage for Liquid-Desiccant Air Conditioning System,” ASME Paper No. IMECE2014-39949.
McNevin, C. , and Harrison, S. , 2014, “ Performance Improvements on a Solar Thermally Driven Liquid Desiccant Air-Conditioner,” CSME International Congress, Toronto, ON, Canada, June 1–4.
Liu, J. , Zhang, T. , Liu, X. , and Jiang, J. , 2015, “ Experimental Analysis of an Internally-Cooled/Heated Liquid Desiccant Dehumidifier/Regenerator Made of Thermally Conductive Plastic,” Energy Build., 99, pp. 75–86. [CrossRef]
Luo, Y. , Wang, M. , Yang, H. , Lu, L. , and Peng, J. , 2015, “ Experimental Study of Internally Cooled Liquid Desiccant Dehumidification: Application in Hong Kong and Intensive Analysis of Influencing Factors,” Build. Environ., 93(Part 2), pp. 210–220. [CrossRef]
Abdel-Salam, M. R. H. , Besant, R. W. , and Simonson, C. J. , 2016, “ Design and Testing of a Novel 3-Fluid Liquid-to-Air Membrane Energy Exchanger (3-Fluid LAMEE),” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 92, pp. 312–329. [CrossRef]
Namvar, R. , Pyra, D. , Ge, G. , Simonson, C. J. , and Besant, R. W. , 2012, “ Transient Characteristics of a Liquid-to-Air Membrane Energy Exchanger (LAMEE): Experimental Data With Correlations,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 55(23–24), pp. 6682–6694. [CrossRef]
Moghaddam, D. G. , Fauchoux, M. , Besant, R. W. , and Simonson, C. J. , 2014, “ Investigating Similarity Between a Small-Scale Liquid-to-Air Membrane Energy Exchanger (LAMEE) and a Full-Scale (100 L/s) LAMEE: Experimental and Numerical Results,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 77, pp. 464–474. [CrossRef]
Incropera, F. P. , and Dewitt, D. P. , 2002, Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer, Wiley, New York.
Moghaddam, D. G. , Oghabi, A. , Ge, G. , Besant, R. W. , and Simonson, C. J. , 2013, “ Numerical Model of a Small-Scale Liquid-to-Air Membrane Energy Exchanger: Parametric Study of Membrane Resistance and Air Side Convective Heat Transfer Coefficient,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 61(2), pp. 245–258. [CrossRef]
Simonson, C. J. , and Besant, R. W. , 1999, “ Energy Wheel Effectiveness: Part I—Development of Dimensionless Groups,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 42(12), pp. 2161–2170. [CrossRef]
Simonson, C. J. , and Besant, R. W. , 1999, “ Energy Wheel Effectiveness: Part II—Correlations,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 42(12), pp. 2171–2185. [CrossRef]
Conde, M. , 2004, “ Aqueous Solutions of Lithium and Calcium Chlorides: Property Formulations for Use in Air Conditioning Equipment Design,” Int. J. Therm. Sci., 43(4), pp. 367–382. [CrossRef]
ASME, 2005, “ Test Uncertainty,” American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York, Performance Test Code No. PTC 19.1-2005.
Li, Y. , Lu, L. , and Yang, H. , 2009, “ Energy and Economic Performance Analysis of an Open Cycle Solar Desiccant Dehumidification Air-Conditioning System for Application in Hong Kong,” Sol. Energy, 84(12), pp. 2085–2095. [CrossRef]
Abdel-Salam, A. H. , 2015, “ A Novel Liquid Desiccant Air Conditioning System With Membrane Exchangers and Various Heat Sources,” Ph.D. thesis, University of Saskatchewan Saskatoon, SK, Canada.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the experimental setup for the LDAC system

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Conceptual schematics for the direction of heat and mass transfer in the low-flow (a) internally cooled dehumidifier and (b) internally heated regenerator. The dehumidifier dries the process air stream, while the regenerator dries the liquid desiccant.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Photo showing the LDAC system [34]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Photos showing (a) the low-flow internally cooled dehumidifier and (b) a cross section view of a single dehumidifier plate showing the internal water passages [24]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Photo showing the low-flow internally heated regenerator

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

The influences of ambient air dry bulb temperature (Tamb,db) on the (a) temperature of air leaving the dehumidifier (Tair,deh,out), (b) humidity ratio of air leaving the dehumidifier (Wair,deh,out), (c) concentration of solution entering (Csol,deh,in) and leaving (Csol,deh,out) thedehumidifier, and (d) temperature of solution/water streams entering/leaving the dehumidifier

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

A psychrometric chart summarizes the influences ofambient air dry bulb temperature (Tamb,db) on the air and solution conditions entering/leaving the dehumidifier

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

The influence of ambient air dry bulb temperature (Tamb,db) on the heat transfer rate to heating water (qwat,heat) and from cooling water (qwat,cool)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

The influence of ambient air dry bulb temperature (Tamb,db) on (a) the sensible (qsen), latent (qlat), and total (qtot) heat transfer rates and (b) the TCOP, ECOP, and COP of the LDAC system

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

The influences of ambient air humidity ratio (Wamb) on the (a) temperature of airleaving the dehumidifier (Tair,deh,out), (b) humidity ratio of air leaving the dehumidifier (Wair,deh,out), and (c) concentration of solution entering (Csol,deh,in) and leaving (Csol,deh,out) the dehumidifier

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

A psychrometric chart which summarizes the influences of ambient air dry humidity ratio (Wamb) on the air and solution conditions entering/leaving the dehumidifier

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

The influence of ambient air humidity ratio (Wamb) on the rate of heat transfer to heating water (qwat,heat) and from cooling water (qwat,cool)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

The influence of ambient air humidity ratio (Wamb) on (a) the sensible (qsen), latent (qlat), and total (qtot) heat transfer rates and (b) the TCOP, ECOP, and COP of the LDAC system

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Comparisons between quasi-steady and transient (a) conditions of air leaving the dehumidifier, (b) heat transfer rates, (c) cooling energy by the dehumidifier, and (d) primary energy consumption of the LDAC system during a complete test day on July 23

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Comparison between performance evaluation using an average value of transients on July 17 and quasi-steady data at test condition T3 from Table 3. (a) Measured ambient air temperature and humidity ratio on July 17, (b) air, solution, and water inlet and outlet conditions from the dehumidifier, and (c) sensible, latent, and total cooling energy by the dehumidifier, and rate of primary energy consumption by the LDAC system.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

Comparison between performance evaluation using an average value of transients on July 31 and quasi-steady data at test condition W2 from Table 3. (a) Measured ambient airtemperature and humidity ratio on July 31, (b) air, solution, and water inlet and outlet conditions from the dehumidifier, and (c) sensible, latent, and total cooling energy by the dehumidifier, and rate of primary energy consumption by the LDAC system.

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In