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Research Papers

The Influence of Nanoparticle Fillers on the Effectiveness of Phosphorus Diffusion Pastes

[+] Author and Article Information
Rudolf Nüssl

NanoSciences Innovation Centre,
Department of Physics,
University of Cape Town,
Rondebosch 7700, South Africa
e-mail: rudolf.nuessl@gmx.de

Josef Biba

Institut für Physik,
Universität der Bundeswehr München,
Werner Heisenberg-Weg 39,
Neubiberg 85577, Germany

David Britton

NanoSciences Innovation Centre,
Department of Physics,
University of Cape Town,
Rondebosch 7700, South Africa

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Solar Energy Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF SOLAR ENERGY ENGINEERING: INCLUDING WIND ENERGY AND BUILDING ENERGY CONSERVATION. Manuscript received November 12, 2014; final manuscript received September 30, 2015; published online December 10, 2015. Editor: Robert F. Boehm.

J. Sol. Energy Eng 138(1), 011008 (Dec 10, 2015) (5 pages) Paper No: SOL-14-1335; doi: 10.1115/1.4031944 History: Received November 12, 2014; Revised September 30, 2015

A phosphosilicate polymer spin-on glass dopant has been adapted to produce a screen printable N-type diffusion pastes using different types of nanoparticles as functional additives to quantitatively change the doping strength of the paste. Strong qualitative and quantitative differences in the resulting phosphorous concentration profiles after diffusion have been found between different compositions. Not only is an intermediate doping level obtainable if silicon nanoparticles are used instead of silica but also a shallower dopant depth is also achieved. The electrical quality of the layer formed by diffusing phosphorus into the surface of a P-type silicon wafer has been investigated by the fabrication and testing of P-N junction solar cells. The devices exhibit diodelike current–voltage (IV) characteristics with open-circuit voltages of 0.437 V and 0.523 V and short-circuit current densities of 1.88 mA/cm2 and 4.78 mA/cm2 indicating a low doping level of the cell emitter and a relatively high series resistance of the junction.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Adjusted temperature profile of the diffusion furnace

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Fig. 2

Cross-sectional SEM micrograph of printed layer of the Si nanoparticle modified diffusion paste: (a) as-printed and (b) after in-diffusion of phosphorus at 1000 °C. (c) Wafer surface after removal of the printed layer by BFH etching.

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Fig. 3

SIMS depth profiles of the phosphorus concentration in P-type wavers obtained from SiO2, Si, and TiO2 nanoparticle modified dopant pastes at a diffusion regime of 1000 °C for 10 min

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Fig. 4

Diffusion model of the three inks investigated. Sample a with SiO2 ink creates the highest doping level due to phosphorus' low solubility and diffusion coefficients in SiO2. Thus, a large fraction of the phosphorus can get incorporated into the wafer. Sample b with nanoparticulate silicon ink creates an intermediate doping level. One fraction of the P dopant gets incorporated into the Si nanoparticles, and the other fraction gets incorporated into the wafer. In sample c basically no phosphorus gets incorporated into the wafer because the phosphorus reacts with TiO2 before diffusion sets in.

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Fig. 5

SIMS profiles of phosphorus diffused P-type wafers using the Si nanoparticulate modified dopant paste, performed at 900 °C and 1000 °C, respectively

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Fig. 6

IV curves of diodes in darkness and under one sun (100 mW/cm2) illumination. Devices were manufactured from phosphorus diffused P-type wavers using the Si nanoparticulate modified dopant paste, performed at 1000 °C and 900 °C, respectively.

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