Research Papers

On the Anthropogenic Heat Fluxes Using an Air Conditioning Evaporative Cooling Parameterization for Mesoscale Urban Canopy Models

[+] Author and Article Information
Estatio Gutiérrez

Mechanical Engineering Department,
The City College of New York,
New York, NY 10031

Jorge E. González

Fellow ASME,
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
The City College of New York,
140 Convent Avenue,
New York, NY 10031
e-mail: gonzalez@me.ccny.cuny.edu

Alberto Martilli

Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas,
Medioambientales y Tecnológicas,
Madrid 28040, Spain

Robert Bornstein

Meteorology Department,
San Jose State University,
San José, CA 95192

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Solar Energy Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF SOLAR ENERGY ENGINEERING: INCLUDING WIND ENERGY AND BUILDING ENERGY CONSERVATION. Manuscript received March 7, 2015; final manuscript received June 2, 2015; published online July 7, 2015. Editor: Robert F. Boehm.

J. Sol. Energy Eng 137(5), 051005 (Oct 01, 2015) (13 pages) Paper No: SOL-15-1058; doi: 10.1115/1.4030854 History: Received March 07, 2015; Revised June 02, 2015; Online July 07, 2015

An air conditioning evaporative cooling parameterization was implemented in a building effect parameterization/building energy model (BEP + BEM) to calculate the magnitude of the anthropogenic sensible and latent heat fluxes from buildings released to the atmosphere. The new heat flux formulation was tested in New York City (NYC) for the summer of 2010. Evaporative cooling technology diminishes between 80% and 90% of the anthropogenic sensible heat from air conditioning systems by transforming it into latent heat in commercial (COMM) areas over NYC. Average 2-m air temperature is reduced by 0.8 °C, while relative humidity is increased by 3% when cooling towers (CTs) are introduced. Additionally, CTs introduce stable atmospheric conditions in the urban canopy layer reducing turbulence production particularly during dry days.

Copyright © 2015 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


U.S. Energy Information Administration, 2012, “Annual Energy Review 2011,” Technical Report No. DOE/EIA-0384.
He, X., Jiang, W., Chen, Y., and Liu, G., 2007, “Numerical Simulation of the Impacts of Anthropogenic Heat on the Structure of the Urban Boundary Layer,” Chin. J. Geophys., 50(1), pp. 75–83. [CrossRef]
Allen, L., Lindberg, F., and Grimmond, C. S. B., 2010, “Global to City Scale Urban Anthropogenic Heat Flux: Model and Variability,” Int. J. Climatol., 31(13), pp. 1990–2005. [CrossRef]
Crawley, D., 2008, “Estimating the Impacts of Climate Change or Urbanization on Building Performance,” J. Build. Perform. Simul., 1(2), pp. 91–115. [CrossRef]
Lu, N., Taylor, T., Jiang, W., Jin, C., Correia, J., Leung, L. R., and Wong, P. C., 2008, “Climate Change Impacts on Residential and Commercial Loads in the Western U.S. Grid,” Technical Report No. PNNL-17826, U.S. Department of Energy, Richland, WA.
Kolokotroni, M., Ren, X., Davies, M., and Mavrogianni, A., 2012, “London's Urban Heat Island: Impact on Current and Future Energy Consumption in Office Buildings,” Energy Build., 47, pp. 302–311. [CrossRef]
Mansur, E., Mendelsohnb, R., and Morrisonc, W., 2008, “Climate Change Adaptation: A Study of Fuel Choice and Consumption in the U.S. Energy Sector,” J. Environ. Econ. Manage., 55(2), pp. 175–193. [CrossRef]
Sailor, D. J., Brooks, A., Hart, M., and Heiple, S., 2007, “A Bottom-Up Approach for Estimating Latent and Sensible Heat Emissions From Anthropogenic Sources,” Proceedings of the 7th Symposium on the Urban Environment, American Meteorological Society, San Diego, CA. https://ams.confex.com/ams/7Coastal7Urban/techprogram/paper_127290.htm
Munck, C., Pigeon, G., Masson, V., Meunier, F., Bousquet, P., Tremeac, B., Merchat, M., Poeuf, P., and Marchadier, C., 2013, “How Much Can Air Conditioning Increase Air Temperatures for a City Like Paris, France?,” Int. J. Climatol., 33(1), pp. 210–227. [CrossRef]
Pigeon, G., Durand, P., and Masson, V., 2006, “Evaluating Parameterization of Anthropogenic Heat Release in Urban Land Surface Scheme From Field Measurements and Energy Consumption Inventory Over Toulouse During Capitoul,” Proceedings of the Sixth Symposium on the Urban Environment, American Meteorological Society, Atlanta, GA.
Grimmond, C. S. B., 1992, “The Suburban Energy Balance: Methodological Considerations and Results for a Mid-Latitude West Coast City Under Winter and Spring Conditions,” Int. J. Climatol., 12(5), pp. 481–497. [CrossRef]
Sailor, D. J., and Lu, L., 2004, “A Top-Down Methodology for Developing Diurnal and Seasonal Anthropogenic Heating Profiles for Urban Areas,” Atmos. Environ., 38(17), pp. 2737–2748. [CrossRef]
Yang, W., Chen, B., and Cui, X., 2014, “High-Resolution Mapping of Anthropogenic Heat in China From 1992 to 2010,” Int. J. Environ., 11(4), pp. 4066–4077. [CrossRef]
Kikegawa, Y., Genchi, Y., Yoshikado, H., and Kondo, H., 2003, “Development of a Numerical Simulation System Toward Comprehensive Assessments of Urban Warming Countermeasures Including Their Impacts Upon the Urban Buildings' Energy-Demands,” Appl. Energy, 76(4), pp. 449–466. [CrossRef]
Salamanca, F., Krpo, A., Martilli, A., and Clappier, A., 2009, “A New Building Energy Model Coupled With an Urban Canopy Parameterization for Urban Climate Simulations—Part 1. Formulation, Verification and Sensitivity Analysis of the Model,” Theor. Appl. Climatol., 99(3–4), pp. 331–344. [CrossRef]
Gutierrez, E., Gonzalez, J., Bornstein, R., Arend, M., and Martilli, A., 2013, “A New Modeling Approach to Forecast Building Energy Demands During Extreme Heat Events in Complex Cities,” ASME J. Sol. Energy Eng., 135(4), p. 040906. [CrossRef]
Gutierrez, E., Gonzalez, J., Martilli, A., Bornstein, R., and Arend, M., 2015, “Simulations of a Heat Wave Event in New York City Using a Multilayer Urban Parameterization,” J. Appl. Meteorol. Climatol., 54(2), pp. 283–301. [CrossRef]
ASHRAE, 2009, ASHRAE Handbook-Fundamentals, American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning Engineers, Atlanta, GA.
Kreider, J., Curtiss, P., and Rabl, A., 2010, Heating and Cooling of Buildings: Design for Efficiency, Taylor and Francis Group, Boca Raton, FL.
Stull, R., 2011, “Wet-Bulb Temperature From Relative Humidity and Air Temperature,” J. Appl. Meteorol. Climatol., 50(11), pp. 2267–2269. [CrossRef]
Martilli, A., Clappier, A., and Rotach, M. W., 2002, “An Urban Surface Exchange Parameterization for Mesoscale Models,” Boundary Layer Meteorol., 104(2), pp. 261–304. [CrossRef]
Skamarock, W. C., Klemp, J. B., Dudhia, J., Gill, D. O., Barker, D. M., Duda, M., Huang, X., Wang, W., and Powers, J. G., 2008, “A Description of the Advanced Research WRF Version 3,” NCAR Technical Note No. TN-475+STR, pp. 1–113. http://www2.mmm.ucar.edu/wrf/users/docs/arw_v3.pdf
Bougeault, P., and Lacarrere, P., 1989, “Parameterization of Orography Induced Turbulence in a Mesobeta-Scale Model,” Mon. Weather Rev., 117(8), pp. 1872–1890. [CrossRef]
Hong, S., Dudhia, J., and Chen, S., 2004, “A Revised Approach to Ice Microphysical Processes for the Bulk Parameterization of Clouds and Precipitation,” Mon. Weather Rev., 132(1), pp. 103–120. [CrossRef]
Mlawer, E., Taubman, S., Brown, P., Iacono, M., and Clough, S., 1997, “Radiative Transfer for Inhomogeneous Atmosphere: RRTM, A Validated Correlated-k Model for Longwave,” J. Geophys. Res., 102(D14), pp. 16663–16682. [CrossRef]
Dudhia, J., 1989, “Numerical Study of Convection Observed During the Winter Monsoon Experiment Using a Mesoscale Two-Dimensional Model,” J. Atmos. Sci., 46(20), pp. 3077–3107. [CrossRef]
Salamanca, F., Georgescu, M., Mahalov, A., Moustaoui, M., and Wang, M., 2014, “Anthropogenic Heating of the Urban Environment Due to Air Conditioning,” J. Geophys. Res., 119(10), pp. 5949–5965. [CrossRef]
Deru, M., Field, K., Studer, D., Benne, K., Griffith, B., Torcellini, P., Liu, B., Halverson, M., Winiarski, D., Rosenberg, M., Yazdanian, M., Huang, J., and Crawley, D., 2011, “U.S. Department of Energy Commercial Reference Building Models of the National Building Stock,” Technical Report No. NREL/TP-5500-46861.
Grumm, R., and Alcott, T., 2013, “The Eastern United States Heat Wave of 3-8 July 2010,” Proceedings of the 24th Conference on Weather and Forecasting, American Meteorological Society, Seattle, WA.
Sailor, D., and Hart, M., 2006, “An Anthropogenic Heating Database for Major U.S. Cities,” Proceedings of the 6th Symposium on the Urban Environment, American Meteorological Society, Atlanta, GA.
Lee, S.-H., McKeen, S., and Sailor, D., 2014, “A Regression Approach for Estimation of Anthropogenic Heat Flux Based on a Bottom-Up Air Pollutant Emission Database,” Atmos. Environ., 95, pp. 629–633. [CrossRef]
Bohnenstenget, S. I., Hamilton, I., Davies, M., and Belcher, S. E., 2014, “Impact of Anthropogenic Heat Emissions on London's Temperatures,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 140(679), pp. 687–698. [CrossRef]
Chow, W., Salamanca, F., Georgescu, M., Mahalov, A., Milne, J., and Ruddell, B., 2014, “A Multi-Method and Multi-Scale Approach for Estimating City-Wide Anthropogenic Heat Fluxes,” Atmos. Environ., 99, pp. 64–76. [CrossRef]
Moriwaki, R., Kanda, M., Senoo, H., Hagishima, A., and Kinouchi, T., 2008, “Anthropogenic Water Vapor Emissions in Tokyo,” Water Resour. Res., 44(11), p. W11424. [CrossRef]
Narumi, D., Kondo, A., and Shimoda, Y., 2009, “Effects of Anthropogenic Heat Release Upon the Urban Climate in a Japanese Megacity,” Environ. Res., 109(4), pp. 421–431. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Salamanca, F., Martilli, A., and Yague, C., 2012, “A Numerical Study of the Urban Heat Island Over Madrid During the DESIREX (2008) Campaign With WRF and an Evaluation of Simple Mitigation Strategies,” Int. J. Climatol., 32(15), pp. 2372–2386. [CrossRef]
Quah, A., and Roth, M., 2012, “Diurnal and Weekly Variation of Anthropogenic Heat Emissions in a Tropical City, Singapore,” Atmos. Environ., 46, pp. 92–103. [CrossRef]
Wang, Z., Bou-Zeid, E., Smith, J. A., and Au, S., 2010, “Analyzing the Sensitivity of WRF's Single-Layer Urban Canopy Model to Parameter Uncertainty Using Advanced Monte Carlo Simulation,” J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., 50(9), pp. 1795–1814. [CrossRef]
Robinson, P., 2001, “On the Definition of a Heat Wave,” J. Appl. Meteorol., 40, pp. 762–775. [CrossRef]
Quan, J., Gao, Y., Zhang, Q., Tie, X., Cao, J., Han, S., Meng, J., Chen, P., and Zhao., D., 2013, “Evolution of Planetary Boundary Layer Under Different Weather Conditions, and Its Impact on Aerosol Concentration,” Particuology, 11(1), pp. 34–40. [CrossRef]
Lin, C., Chen, F., Huang, J. C., Chen, W.-C., Liou, Y.-A., Chen, W.-N., and Liu, S.-C., 2008, “Urban Heat Island Effect and Its Impact in Boundary Layer Development and Land–Sea Circulation Over Northern Taiwan,” Atmos. Environ., 42(22), pp. 5635–5649. [CrossRef]
Han, S., Bian, H., Tie, X., Xie, Y., Sun, M., and Liu, A., 2009, “Impact of Nocturnal Planetary Boundary Layer on Urban Air Pollutants: Measurements From a 250-m Tower Over Tianjun, China,” J. Hazard. Mater., 162(1), pp. 264–269. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Bornstein, R., 1968, “Observations of the Urban Heat Island Effect in New York City,” J. Appl. Meteorol., 7(4), pp. 575–582. [CrossRef]
Li, X., Koh, T., Entekhabi, D., Roth, M., Panda, J., and Norford, L., 2013, “A Multi-Resolution Ensemble Study of a Tropical Urban Environment and Its Interactions With Background Regional Atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 118(17), pp. 9804–9818. [CrossRef]
Makar, P. A., Gravel, S., Chirkov, V., Strawbridge, K. B., Froude, F., Arnold, J., and Brook, J., 2006, “Heat Flux, Urban Properties, and Regional Weather,” Atmos. Environ., 40(15), pp. 2750–2766. [CrossRef]
Louka, P., Belcher, S. E., and Harrison, R. G., 2000, “Coupling Between Air Flow in Streets and the Well-Developed Boundary Layer Aloft,” Atmos. Environ., 34(16), pp. 2613–2621. [CrossRef]
Hang, J., Li., Y., and Sandberg, M., 2011, “Experimental and Numerical Studies of Flow Through and Within High-Rise Building Arrays and Their Link to Ventilation Strategy,” J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerodyn., 99(10), pp. 1036–1055. [CrossRef]
Martilli, A., 2002, “Numerical Study of Urban Impact on Boundary Layer Structure: Sensitivity to Wind Speed, Urban Morphology, and Rural Soil Moisture,” J. Appl. Meteorol., 41(12), pp. 1247–1266. [CrossRef]
Kastner-Klein, P., Fedorovich, E., and Rotach, M. W., 2001, “A Wind Tunnel Study of Organized and Turbulent Air Motions in Urban Streets Canyons,” J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerodyn., 89(9), pp. 849–861. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

WRF grid structure (a) and NYC considered domain (b)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Anthropogenic sensible (a) and latent (b) summertime average daily cycle in RES and COMM areas for the control and CT simulations

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

A/C energy consumption summertime average daily cycle in COMM areas for the control and CT simulations

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Daytime average anthropogenic sensible (a) and latent (b) heat for the control (1) and CT (2) simulations

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Average A/C sensible (a) and latent (b) heat flux daily cycle in RES and COMM sites for control and CT from July 6th to July 7th, 2010

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Summertime average temperature (a) and specific humidity (b) daily cycle from two COMM sites for observed data, control, CT, and forcing data (NARR)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Summertime temperature and humidity average difference between control and CT simulation for two COMM locations in NYC. Hourly accumulated rainfall is also included.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Two-meter temperature and heat index ([Δ]HI) average daily cycle difference between the CT and control simulations for the heat wave event during July 6 and 7, 2010

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Average PBL height daily cycle in COMM sites for control and CT simulations during wet and dry days

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Summertime potential temperature average vertical profile at: 0600 (a) and 1500 (b) LST in COMM areas for control and CT simulations

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Potential temperature average vertical profile at: 0600 in COMM areas during a heat wave (July 6–7) (dry) and thunderstorm event (July 24–25) (wet) for control and CT simulations

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

TKE average vertical profile at: 0600 (a) and 1500 (b) LST in COMM sites for control and CT simulations

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Specific humidity average vertical profile at: 0600 (a) and 1500 (b) LST in COMM sites for control and CT simulations




Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In