Research Papers

On the Anthropogenic Heat Fluxes Using an Air Conditioning Evaporative Cooling Parameterization for Mesoscale Urban Canopy Models

[+] Author and Article Information
Estatio Gutiérrez

Mechanical Engineering Department,
The City College of New York,
New York, NY 10031

Jorge E. González

Fellow ASME,
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
The City College of New York,
140 Convent Avenue,
New York, NY 10031
e-mail: gonzalez@me.ccny.cuny.edu

Alberto Martilli

Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas,
Medioambientales y Tecnológicas,
Madrid 28040, Spain

Robert Bornstein

Meteorology Department,
San Jose State University,
San José, CA 95192

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Solar Energy Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF SOLAR ENERGY ENGINEERING: INCLUDING WIND ENERGY AND BUILDING ENERGY CONSERVATION. Manuscript received March 7, 2015; final manuscript received June 2, 2015; published online July 7, 2015. Editor: Robert F. Boehm.

J. Sol. Energy Eng 137(5), 051005 (Oct 01, 2015) (13 pages) Paper No: SOL-15-1058; doi: 10.1115/1.4030854 History: Received March 07, 2015; Revised June 02, 2015; Online July 07, 2015

An air conditioning evaporative cooling parameterization was implemented in a building effect parameterization/building energy model (BEP + BEM) to calculate the magnitude of the anthropogenic sensible and latent heat fluxes from buildings released to the atmosphere. The new heat flux formulation was tested in New York City (NYC) for the summer of 2010. Evaporative cooling technology diminishes between 80% and 90% of the anthropogenic sensible heat from air conditioning systems by transforming it into latent heat in commercial (COMM) areas over NYC. Average 2-m air temperature is reduced by 0.8 °C, while relative humidity is increased by 3% when cooling towers (CTs) are introduced. Additionally, CTs introduce stable atmospheric conditions in the urban canopy layer reducing turbulence production particularly during dry days.

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Fig. 2

Anthropogenic sensible (a) and latent (b) summertime average daily cycle in RES and COMM areas for the control and CT simulations

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Fig. 1

WRF grid structure (a) and NYC considered domain (b)

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Fig. 3

A/C energy consumption summertime average daily cycle in COMM areas for the control and CT simulations

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Fig. 4

Daytime average anthropogenic sensible (a) and latent (b) heat for the control (1) and CT (2) simulations

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Fig. 5

Average A/C sensible (a) and latent (b) heat flux daily cycle in RES and COMM sites for control and CT from July 6th to July 7th, 2010

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Fig. 6

Summertime average temperature (a) and specific humidity (b) daily cycle from two COMM sites for observed data, control, CT, and forcing data (NARR)

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Fig. 7

Summertime temperature and humidity average difference between control and CT simulation for two COMM locations in NYC. Hourly accumulated rainfall is also included.

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Fig. 8

Two-meter temperature and heat index ([Δ]HI) average daily cycle difference between the CT and control simulations for the heat wave event during July 6 and 7, 2010

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Fig. 9

Average PBL height daily cycle in COMM sites for control and CT simulations during wet and dry days

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Fig. 10

Summertime potential temperature average vertical profile at: 0600 (a) and 1500 (b) LST in COMM areas for control and CT simulations

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Fig. 11

Potential temperature average vertical profile at: 0600 in COMM areas during a heat wave (July 6–7) (dry) and thunderstorm event (July 24–25) (wet) for control and CT simulations

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Fig. 12

TKE average vertical profile at: 0600 (a) and 1500 (b) LST in COMM sites for control and CT simulations

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Fig. 13

Specific humidity average vertical profile at: 0600 (a) and 1500 (b) LST in COMM sites for control and CT simulations



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