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Research Papers

New Thermal Energy Storage Materials From Industrial Wastes: Compatibility of Steel Slag With the Most Common Heat Transfer Fluids

[+] Author and Article Information
Iñigo Ortega-Fernández

CIC Energigune,
C/Albert Einstein 48,
Miñano, Álava 01510, Spain
e-mail: iortega@cicenergigune.com

Javier Rodríguez-Aseguinolaza

CIC Energigune,
C/Albert Einstein 48,
Miñano, Álava 01510, Spain
e-mail: jrodriguez@cicenergigune.com

Antoni Gil

CIC Energigune,
C/Albert Einstein 48,
Miñano, Álava 01510, Spain
e-mail: agil@cicenergigune.com

Abdessamad Faik

CIC Energigune,
C/Albert Einstein 48,
Miñano, Álava 01510, Spain
e-mail: afaik@cicenergigune.com

Bruno D’Aguanno

CIC Energigune,
C/Albert Einstein 48,
Miñano, Álava 01510, Spain
e-mail: bdaguanno@cicenergigune.com

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Solar Energy Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF SOLAR ENERGY ENGINEERING: INCLUDING WIND ENERGY AND BUILDING ENERGY CONSERVATION. Manuscript received August 28, 2014; final manuscript received April 16, 2015; published online May 11, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Prof. Nathan Siegel.

J. Sol. Energy Eng 137(4), 041005 (Aug 01, 2015) (6 pages) Paper No: SOL-14-1247; doi: 10.1115/1.4030450 History: Received August 28, 2014; Revised April 16, 2015; Online May 11, 2015

Slag is one of the main waste materials of the iron and steel manufacturing. Every year about 20 × 106 tons of slag are generated in the U.S. and 43.5 × 106 tons in Europe. The valorization of this by-product as heat storage material in thermal energy storage (TES) systems has numerous advantages which include the possibility to extend the working temperature range up to 1000 °C, the reduction of the system cost, and at the same time, the decrease of the quantity of waste in the iron and steel industry. In this paper, two different electric arc furnace (EAF) slags from two companies located in the Basque Country (Spain) are studied. Their thermal stability and compatibility in direct contact with the most common heat transfer fluids (HTFs) used in the concentrated solar power (CSP) plants are analyzed. The experiments have been designed in order to cover a wide range of temperature up to the maximum operation temperature of 1000 °C corresponding to the future generation of CSP plants. In particular, three different fluids have been studied: synthetic oil (Syltherm 800®) at 400 °C, molten salt (Solar Salt) at 500 °C, and air at 1000 °C. In addition, a complete characterization of the studied slags and fluids used in the experiments is presented showing the behavior of these materials after 500 hr laboratory-tests.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Pictures of the as-received EAF-Slag used in this study: AMS on the left and PTS on the right

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Fig. 2

XRD powder patterns of the reference and tested samples in air at 1000 °C after 500 hr of corrosion test

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Fig. 3

SEM images of EAF-Slags in contact with air—upper-left: raw AMS; lower-left: AMS after compatibility test; upper-right: raw PTS; and lower-right: PTS after compatibility test

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Fig. 4

XRD powder patterns of the Solar Salt before and after the corrosion test

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Fig. 5

ESEM images of the interfacial zone of the tested samples (upper AMS and lower PTS) with Solar Salt after 500 hr of corrosion test at 500 °C

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Fig. 6

FT-IR spectra of Syltherm 800®: as-received (bottom), in contact with AMS (middle), and in contact with PTS (top)

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Fig. 7

SEM images of EAF-Slags in contact with synthetic oil—upper-left: raw AMS; lower-left: AMS after compatibility test; upper-right: raw PTS; and lower-right: PTS after compatibility test

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