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Research Papers

Energy Production of Different Types and Orientations of Photovoltaic Systems Under Outdoor Conditions

[+] Author and Article Information
Sebastijan Seme

Faculty of Energy Technology,
University of Maribor,
Hočevarjev trg 1,
Krško SI-8270, Slovenia;
Faculty of Electrical Engineering and
Computer Science,
Applied Electrical Engineering Laboratory,
University of Maribor,
Smetanova ulica 17,
Maribor SI-2000, Slovenia
e-mail: sebastijan.seme@um.si

Jože Požun

Krško-Sevnica School Centre,
Cesta krških žrtev 131,
Krško SI-8270, Slovenia

Bojan Štumberger

Faculty of Energy Technology,
University of Maribor,
Hočevarjev trg 1,
Krško SI-8270, Slovenia;
Faculty of Electrical Engineering and
Computer Science,
Electric Machines and Drives Laboratory,
University of Maribor,
Smetanova ulica 17,
Maribor SI-2000, Slovenia

Miralem Hadžiselimović

Faculty of Energy Technology,
University of Maribor,
Hočevarjev trg 1,
Krško SI-8270, Slovenia;
Faculty of Electrical Engineering and
Computer Science,
Applied Electrical Engineering Laboratory,
University of Maribor,
Smetanova ulica 17,
Maribor SI-2000, Slovenia

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Solar Energy Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF SOLAR ENERGY ENGINEERING: INCLUDING WIND ENERGY AND BUILDING ENERGY CONSERVATION. Manuscript received November 7, 2014; final manuscript received January 31, 2015; published online February 25, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Santiago Silvestre.

J. Sol. Energy Eng 137(2), 021021 (Apr 01, 2015) (10 pages) Paper No: SOL-14-1327; doi: 10.1115/1.4029736 History: Received November 07, 2014; Revised January 31, 2015; Online February 25, 2015

This work compares the energy production of different types and orientations of photovoltaic systems under the equal outdoor conditions over the 4-yr period in Slovenia. The following photovoltaic systems were analyzed: the fixed photovoltaic system oriented to the south tilted at 30 deg, the fixed photovoltaic system oriented to the east tilted at 30 deg, the single axis photovoltaic tracking system tilted at 30 deg, and the fixed photovoltaic system oriented to the south tilted at 15 deg. The same monocrystalline silicon (mc-Si) solar modules are used in the compared systems. The systems are installed in a radius of 20 m. This provides the same meteorological parameters during the measured period. The impact of orientation and inclination on energy production are evaluated. The analysis of the data obtained shows that the energy production of the photovoltaic systems depends on the solar irradiation, temperature of solar modules, efficiency of solar modules, and efficiency of dc-ac inverters. Based on the analysis and measurements for different photovoltaic systems, the optimal orientation and inclination are presented. The results for Slovenia show that the optimal orientation and inclination facing south tilted at 45 deg.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

The discussed photovoltaic systems

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Fig. 2

The electrical scheme of discussed photovoltaic systems

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Fig. 3

The photovoltaic systems type 1 (oriented to the south) and type 2 (oriented to the east) tilted at 30 deg

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Fig. 4

The single axis photovoltaic systems type 3

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Fig. 5

The fixed photovoltaic system (type 4) oriented to the south tilted at 15 deg

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Fig. 6

Average daily solar irradiation Gh(n) on a horizontal surface over a period of 4 yr

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Fig. 7

Average daily ambient temperature over a period of 4 yr

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Fig. 8

Monthly average and annual average yield of energy production of different types and orientations of photovoltaic systems over a period of 4 yr

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Fig. 9

Energy efficiency values as a function of the irradiance for different type of photovoltaic systems

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Fig. 10

Energy efficiency values as a function of the module temperature for different types of photovoltaic systems

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Fig. 11

The 3D representation of data points from 8913 characteristic measurements of the module for type 1

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Fig. 12

The 3D representation of data points from 8913 characteristic measurements of the module for type 2

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Fig. 13

The 3D representation of data points from 8913 characteristic measurements of the module for type 3

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Fig. 14

The 3D representation of data points from 8913 characteristic measurements of the module for type 4

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Fig. 15

Efficiency of inverter

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Fig. 16

Annual average energy production for all possible orientations and tilt angles over a period of 4 yr

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