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Research Papers

CuO Nanoparticles Based Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells: Investigations on Morphology and Performance

[+] Author and Article Information
Aruna P. Wanninayake

Materials Science and Engineering Department,
University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee,
3200 North Cramer Street,
Milwaukee, WI 53201
e-mail: wannina2@uwm.edu

Subhashini Gunashekar

Materials Science and Engineering Department,
University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee,
3200 North Cramer Street,
Milwaukee, WI 53201
e-mail: gunashe2@uwm.edu

Shengyi Li

Materials Science and Engineering Department,
University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee,
3200 North Cramer Street,
Milwaukee, WI 53201
e-mail: shengyi@uwm.edu

Benjamin C. Church

Materials Science and Engineering Department,
University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee,
3200 North Cramer Street,
Milwaukee, WI 53201
e-mail: church@uwm.edu

Nidal Abu-Zahra

Materials Science and Engineering Department,
University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee,
3200 North Cramer Street,
Milwaukee, WI 53201
e-mail: nidal@uwm.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Solar Energy Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF SOLAR ENERGY ENGINEERING: INCLUDING WIND ENERGY AND BUILDING ENERGY CONSERVATION. Manuscript received October 10, 2014; final manuscript received December 20, 2014; published online January 27, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Santiago Silvestre.

J. Sol. Energy Eng 137(3), 031016 (Jun 01, 2015) (7 pages) Paper No: SOL-14-1293; doi: 10.1115/1.4029542 History: Received October 10, 2014; Revised December 20, 2014; Online January 27, 2015

Copper oxide (CuO) is a p-type semiconductor having a band gap energy of 1.5 eV, which is close to the ideal energy gap of 1.4 eV required for solar cells to allow good solar spectral absorption. The inherent electrical characteristics of CuO nanoparticles make them attractive candidates for improving the performance of polymer solar cells (PSCs) when incorporated in the active polymer layer. The incorporation of CuO nanoparticles in P3HT/PC70BM solar cells at the optimum concentration yields 40.7% improvement in power conversion efficiency (PCE). The CuO nanoparticles in the size range of 100–150 nm have an effective average band gap of 2.07 eV. In addition, the X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analyses show improvement in P3HT crystallinity, and surface analysis by atomic force microscope (AFM) shows an increase in surface roughness of the PSCs. The key factors namely photo-absorption, exciton diffusion, dissociation, charge transport, and charge collection inside the PSCs which affect the external quantum efficiency (EQE) and PCE of these cells are analyzed.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Schematic illustration of the structure of a PSC

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Fig. 2

PCE of P3HT/PCBM/CuO-NP hybrid solar cells

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Fig. 3

EQE of P3HT/PCBM/CuO-NPs hybrid solar cells

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Fig. 4

EQE values with different amounts of CuO NPs

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Fig. 5

Optical absorption spectra of the synthesized PSCs

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Fig. 6

(a) Schematic band structure of the P3HT/PCBM/CuO NP solar cell. (b) SEM image of the PSC.

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Fig. 7

XRD spectra of P3HT/PCBM thin films containing CuO NPs

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Fig. 8

Crystallinity of PSC's determined by XRD and DSC-Eq. (4)

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Fig. 9

Crystallinity of PSC's determined by XRD and DSC-Eq. (5)

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Fig. 10

Effect of CuO NPs on the crystallinity and PCE of the PSCs

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Fig. 11

AFM images for P3HT/PCBM layers with (a) no CuO NPs, (b) 0.2 mg CuO NPs, (c) 0.4 mg CuO NPs, (d) 0.6 mg CuO NPs, (e) 0.8 mg CuO NPs, and (f) 1 mg CuO NPs

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