0
Research Papers

Modular Design and Experimental Testing of a 50 kWth Pressurized-Air Solar Receiver for Gas Turbines

[+] Author and Article Information
Peter Poživil, Nicolas Ettlin, Fabian Stucker

Department of Mechanical
and Process Engineering,
ETH Zürich,
Zürich 8092, Switzerland

Aldo Steinfeld

Department of Mechanical
and Process Engineering,
ETH Zürich,
Zürich 8092, Switzerland
Solar Technology Laboratory,
Paul Scherrer Institute,
Villigen 5232, Switzerland
e-mail: aldo.steinfeld@ethz.ch

The solar concentration ratio C is defined as the ratio of the solar flux intensity achieved after optical concentration to the direct normal irradiance (DNI). It is a dimensionless number, often reported in units of “suns”.

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Solar Energy Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF SOLAR ENERGY ENGINEERING: INCLUDING WIND ENERGY AND BUILDING ENERGY CONSERVATION. Manuscript received May 20, 2014; final manuscript received October 19, 2014; published online November 17, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Markus Eck.

J. Sol. Energy Eng 137(3), 031002 (Jun 01, 2015) (7 pages) Paper No: SOL-14-1150; doi: 10.1115/1.4028918 History: Received May 20, 2014; Revised October 19, 2014; Online November 17, 2014

A high-temperature high-concentration pressurized-air solar receiver is considered for driving a power generation Brayton cycle. The modular design consists of a cylindrical SiC cavity surrounded by a concentric annular reticulated porous ceramic (RPC) foam contained in a stainless steel pressure vessel, with a secondary concentrator attached to its windowless aperture. Experimentation was carried out in a solar tower for up to 47 kW of concentrated solar radiative power input in the absolute pressure range of 2-6 bar. Peak outlet air temperatures exceeding 1200 °C were reached for an average solar concentration ratio of 2500 suns. A notable thermal efficiency—defined as the ratio of the enthalpy change of the air flow divided by the solar radiative power input through the aperture—of 91% was achieved at 700 °C and 4 bar.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2015 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Kribus, A., Zaibel, R., Carey, D., Segal, A., and Karni, J., 1998, “A Solar-Driven Combined Cycle Power Plant,” Sol. Energy, 62(2), pp. 121–129. [CrossRef]
Romero, M., and Steinfeld, A., 2012, “Concentrating Solar Thermal Power and Thermochemical Fuels,” Energy Environ. Sci., 5(11), pp. 9234–9245. [CrossRef]
Boyce, M. P., 2012, Gas Turbine Engineering Handbook, Gulf Professional Publishing, Boston.
Saravanamuttoo, H. I. H., Rogers, G. F. C., and Cohen, H., 2009, Gas Turbine Theory, Prentice Hall, Harlow.
Poživil, P., Aga, V., Zagorskiy, A., and Steinfeld, A., 2014, “A Pressurized Air Receiver for Solar-Driven Gas Turbines,” Energy Procedia, 49(0), pp. 498–503. [CrossRef]
Ávila-Marín, A. L., 2011, “Volumetric Receivers in Solar Thermal Power Plants With Central Receiver System Technology: A Review,” Sol. Energy, 85(5), pp. 891–910. [CrossRef]
Pritzkow, W. E. C., 1991, “Pressure Loaded Volumetric Ceramic Receiver,” Sol. Energy Mater., 24(1–4), pp. 498–507. [CrossRef]
Kribus, A., Doron, P., Rubin, R., Reuven, R., Taragan, E., Duchan, S., and Karni, J., 2001, “Performance of the Directly-Irradiated Annular Pressurized Receiver (Diapr) Operating at 20 Bar and 1,200 °C,” ASME J. Sol. Energy Eng., 123(1), pp. 10–17. [CrossRef]
Buck, R., Bräuning, T., Denk, T., Pfänder, M., Schwarzbözl, P., and Tellez, F., 2002, “Solar-Hybrid Gas Turbine-Based Power Tower Systems (Refos),” ASME J. Sol. Energy Eng., 124(1), pp. 2–9. [CrossRef]
Karni, J., Kribus, A., Ostraich, B., and Kochavi, E., 1998, “A High-Pressure Window for Volumetric Solar Receivers,” ASME J. Sol. Energy Eng., 120(1), pp. 101–107. [CrossRef]
Röger, M., Pfänder, M., and Buck, R., 2006, “Multiple Air-Jet Window Cooling for High-Temperature Pressurized Volumetric Receivers: Testing, Evaluation, and Modeling,” ASME J. Sol. Energy Eng., 128(3), pp. 265–274. [CrossRef]
Hischier, I., Hess, D., Lipiński, W., Modest, M., and Steinfeld, A., 2009, “Heat Transfer Analysis of a Novel Pressurized Air Receiver for Concentrated Solar Power Via Combined Cycles,” J. Therm. Sci. Eng. Appl., 1(4), p. 041002. [CrossRef]
Hischier, I., Leumann, P., and Steinfeld, A., 2012, “Experimental and Numerical Analyses of a Pressurized Air Receiver for Solar-Driven Gas Turbines,” ASME J. Sol. Energy Eng., 134(2), p. 021003. [CrossRef]
Hischier, I., Poživil, P., and Steinfeld, A., 2012, “A Modular Ceramic Cavity-Receiver for High-Temperature High-Concentration Solar Applications,” ASME J. Sol. Energy Eng., 134(1), p. 011004. [CrossRef]
Munro, R. G., 1997, “Material Properties of a Sintered Alpha-Sic,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 26(5), pp. 1195–1203. [CrossRef]
Haussener, S., Coray, P., Lipiński, W., Wyss, P., and Steinfeld, A., 2010, “Tomography-Based Heat and Mass Transfer Characterization of Reticulate Porous Ceramics for High-Temperature Processing,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 132(2), p. 023305. [CrossRef]
Winston, R., Miñano, J. C., and Benítez, P., 2005, Nonimaging Optics, Elsevier Academic Press, Amsterdam.
Keenan, J. H., Kaye, J., and Caho, J., 1985, Gas Tables, Wiley & Sons, New York.
Rabl, A., 1985, Active Solar Collectors and Their Applications, Oxford University Press, New York.
Petrasch, J., 2010, “A Free and Open Source Monte Carlo Ray Tracing Program for Concentrating Solar Energy Research,” ASME Paper No. ES2010-90206. [CrossRef]
Duffie, J. A., and Beckman, W. A., 2013, Solar Engineering of Thermal Processes, Wiley & Sons, New York.
Cumpsty, N. A., 2004, Compressor Aerodynamics, Addison-Wesley Longman, Malabar.
Deutsches Institut für Normung, 1979, Standardatmosphäre, DIN ISO 2533.
Schmitz, M., Schwarzbözl, P., Buck, R., and Pitz-Paal, R., 2006, “Assessment of the Potential Improvement due to Multiple Apertures in Central Receiver Systems With Secondary Concentrators,” Sol. Energy, 80(1), pp. 111–120. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Schematic of solar receiver. The modular design consists of a cylindrical SiC cavity surrounded by a concentric annular RPC foam contained in a stainless steel pressure vessel, with a secondary concentrator (CPC) attached to its windowless aperture

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Experimental setup at the solar tower of the Weizmann Institute of Science

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Representative experimental run at 2 bar pressure level. With the air flow rate set to maximum, Q·in was stepwise increased by introducing the heliostats one by one after 11:20. The two air-calorimetry points are at 11:50 and 15:00. The outlet air temperature was increased by reducing m· stepwise. The peak temperature registered was 1090 °C.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Pressure drop across the RPC as a function of the air mass flow rate at various operating pressures for the three RPC configurations: 10 PPI, 20 PPI, and 10 PPI + baffles (BAF)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Pressure coefficient across the RPC versus corrected mass flow rate for the three RPC configurations: 10 PPI, 20 PPI, and 10 PPI + baffles (BAF)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Outlet air temperature as a function of the air mass flow rate. The approximate trend is indicated by an exponential fit. Error bars are within the size of the markers.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Enthalpy change of the air flow versus air mass flow rate for the three RPC configurations: 10 PPI, 20 PPI, and 10 PPI + baffles (BAF). Error bars are within the size of the markers.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Thermal efficiency as a function of the outlet air temperature at various pressures for the three RPC configurations: (a) 10 PPI, (b) 20 PPI, and (c) 10 PPI + baffles

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Thermal efficiency as a function of the specific solar radiative energy input for the three RPC configurations: 10 PPI, 20 PPI, and 10 PPI + baffles (BAF)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Ideal solar heat engine efficiency (ηth × ηCarnot) as a function of the outlet air temperature at various pressures for the three RPC configurations: (a) 10 PPI, (b) 20 PPI, and (c) 10 PPI + baffles

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Ideal solar heat engine efficiency (ηth × ηCarnot) as a function of the outlet air temperature. The dashed line shows the theoretical maximum for Tamb = 25 °C.

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In