0
Research Papers

Conceptual Design and Analysis of Hydrocarbon-Based Solar Thermal Power and Ejector Cooling Systems in Hot Climates

[+] Author and Article Information
TieJun Zhang

Department of Mechanical and
Materials Engineering,
Masdar Institute of Science and Technology,
P. O. Box 54224,
Masdar City, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates
e-mail: tjzhang@masdar.ac.ae

Saleh Mohamed

Department of Mechanical and
Materials Engineering,
Masdar Institute of Science and Technology,
P. O. Box 54224,
Masdar City, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Solar Energy Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF SOLAR ENERGY ENGINEERING: Including Wind Energy and Building Energy Conservation. Manuscript received August 23, 2013; final manuscript received August 14, 2014; published online September 10, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Werner Platzer.

J. Sol. Energy Eng 137(2), 021001 (Sep 10, 2014) (9 pages) Paper No: SOL-13-1238; doi: 10.1115/1.4028365 History: Received August 23, 2013; Revised August 14, 2014

A combined thermal power and ejector refrigeration cooling cycle is proposed in this paper to harness low-grade solar energy. It explores the possibility of utilizing abundant and low-cost hydrocarbon as the working fluid. Hydrocarbon fluid has been identified as a promising alternative to existing high global-warming-potential (GWP) refrigerants (i.e., HFCs) in next-generation cooling and organic thermal power systems. Several typical alternative refrigerants are evaluated by considering their fundamental thermophysical properties: absolute pressure level, volumetric cooling capacity, surface tension, saturated liquid/vapor density ratio, and kinematic viscosity. Comparing with R1234yf, R1234ze, and R744 (CO2), hydrocarbon refrigerants, such as R290 (propane) and R601 (pentane), do have inherent advantages for either cooling or power generation purposes in hot climates. Fundamental phase stability and transition issues have been considered in designing hydrocarbon ejectors for combined power and cooling cycles operating at high ambient temperature. Thermodynamic energy and exergy analysis has indicated that the proposed stand-alone solar thermal system offers an effective way to sustainable energy production in hot and dry climates.

Copyright © 2015 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

U.S. Department of Energy, 2013, “SunShot Vision Study.” Available at: http://energy.gov/eere/sunshot/sunshot-vision-study.
Barlev, D., Vidu, R., and Stroeve, P., 2011, “Innovation in Concentrated Solar Power,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells, 95(10), pp. 2703–2725. [CrossRef]
Wu, D. W., and Wang, R. Z., 2006, “Combined Cooling, Heating and Power: A Review,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci., 32(5–6), pp. 459–495. [CrossRef]
Wang, K., et al. ., 2010, “Review of Secondary Loop Refrigeration Systems,” Int. J. Refrig., 33(2), pp. 212–234. [CrossRef]
Lee, J., and Mudawar, I., 2009, “Low-Temperature Two-Phase Microchannel Cooling for High-Heat-Flux Thermal Management of Defense Electronics,” IEEE Trans. Compon. Packag. Technol., 32(2), pp. 453–465. [CrossRef]
Schmidt, R. R., and Notohardjono, B. D., 2002, “High-End Server Low Temperature Cooling,” IBM J. Res. Dev., 46(6), pp. 739–751. [CrossRef]
Catano, J., Zhang, T. J., Jensen, M. K., Peles, Y., and Wen, J. T., 2013, “Vapor Compression Refrigeration Cycle for Electronics Cooling. Part I: Dynamic Modeling and Experimental Validation,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 66, pp. 911–921. [CrossRef]
Chen, X. J., Omer, S., Worall, M., and Riffat, S., 2013, “Recent Developments in Ejector Refrigeration Technologies,” Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev., 19, pp. 629–651. [CrossRef]
Huang, B. J., Chang, J. M., Wang, C. P., and Petrenko, C. A., 1999, “A 1-D Analysis of Ejector Performance,” Int. J. Refrig., 22(5), pp. 354–364. [CrossRef]
Liu, F., Li, Y., and Groll, E. A., 2012, “Performance Enhancement of CO2 Air Conditioner With a Controllable Ejector,” Int. J. Refrig., 35(6), pp. 1604–1616. [CrossRef]
Khaliq, A., Kumar, R., Dincer, I., and Khalid, F., 2013, “Energy and Exergy Analyses of a New Triple-Staged Refrigeration Cycle Using Solar Heat Source,” ASME J. Sol. Energy Eng., 136(1), p. 011004. [CrossRef]
Hernandez, J. I., Dorantes, R. J., Estrada, C. A., and Best, R., 2005, “Study of a Solar Booster Assisted Ejector Refrigeration System With R134a,” ASME J. Sol. Energy Eng., 127(1), pp. 53–59. [CrossRef]
Dong, J., Pounds, D. A., Cheng, P., and Ma, H. B., 2012, “An Experimental Investigation of Steam Ejector Refrigeration Systems,” ASME J. Therm. Sci. Eng. Appl., 4(3), p. 031004. [CrossRef]
Zheng, B., and Weng, Y. W., 2010, “A Combined Power and Ejector Refrigeration Cycle for Low Temperature Heat Sources,” Sol. Energy, 84(5), pp. 784–791. [CrossRef]
Elbel, S., 2011, “Historical and Present Developments of Ejector Refrigeration Systems With Emphasis on Transcritical Carbon Dioxide Air-Conditioning Applications,” Int. J. Refrig., 34(7), pp. 1545–1561. [CrossRef]
Petrenko, V. O., and Volovyk, O. S., 2011, “Theoretical Study and Design of a Low-Grade Heat-Driven Pilot Ejector Refrigeration Machine Operating With Butane and Isobutane and Intended for Cooling of Gas Transported in a Gas-Main Pipeline,” Int. J. Refrig., 34(7), pp. 1699–1706. [CrossRef]
Wang, H., Peterson, R., Harada, K., Miller, E., Ingram-Goble, R., Fisher, L., Yih, J., and Ward, C., 2011, “Performance of a Combined Organic Rankine Cycle and Vapor Compression Cycle for Heat Activated Cooling,” Energy, 36(1), pp. 447–458. [CrossRef]
Ayub, Z., 2012, “Status of Enhanced Heat Transfer in Systems With Natural Refrigerants,” ASME J. Therm. Sci. Eng. Appl., 2(4), p. 044001. [CrossRef]
Kim, M.-H., Pettersen, J., and Bullard, C. W., 2004, “Fundamental Process and System Design Issues in CO2 Vapor Compression Systems,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci., 30(2), pp. 119–174. [CrossRef]
Grazzini, G., Milazzo, A., and Piazzini, S., 2011, “Prediction of Condensation in Steam Ejector for a Refrigeration System,” Int. J. Refrig., 34(7), pp. 1641–1648. [CrossRef]
Carey, V. P., 2008, Liquid-Vapor Phase-Change Phenomena: An Introduction to the Thermophysics of Vaporization and Condensation Processes in Heat Transfer Equipment, 2nd ed., Taylor & Francis, NY.
Liao, C., 2008, “Gas Ejector Modeling for Design and Analysis,” Ph.D. dissertation, Texas A & M University, College Station, TX.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the proposed solar thermal power and ejector cooling cycle

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Pressure level of different refrigerants

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Volumetric cooling capacity of different refrigerants

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Surface tension of different refrigerants

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Saturated liquid/vapor density ratio of different refrigerants

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Kinematic viscosity of different refrigerants (saturated vapor)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Saturated vapor temperature-specific entropy lines of different refrigerants (R134a, 1234yf, R1234ze, propane, isobutane, butane, pentane, and CO2): ambient temperature 40 °C

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Pressure-specific volume spinodal lines and metastable regions of Pentane (symbols: ejector motive flow P–v diagram)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Schematic diagram of a refrigerant ejector

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Axial pressure/temperature/velocity distributions inside a vapor ejector

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Nonlinear characteristics of motive flow nozzle inside a vapor ejector (Eq. (A6))

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Pressure-enthalpy diagram of the proposed solar thermal power and ejector cooling cycle

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Prediction with the proposed ejector model (experimental data from Ref. [9])

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Temperature-entropy diagram of the proposed solar thermal power and ejector cooling cycle

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Simulation flow chart of a vapor ejector model

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In