0
Research Papers

Optical Design of Multisource High-Flux Solar Simulators

[+] Author and Article Information
Roman Bader

Research School of Engineering,
The Australian National University,
Canberra ACT 2601, Australia
e-mail: roman.bader@anu.edu.au

Sophia Haussener

Institute of Mechanical Engineering,
Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne,
Lausanne 1015, Switzerland
e-mail: sophia.haussener@epfl.ch

Wojciech Lipiński

Research School of Engineering,
The Australian National University,
Canberra ACT 2601, Australia
e-mail: wojciech.lipinski@anu.edu.au

Additional solar simulators have been mentioned in the literature, including a one-lamp design producing a peak radiative flux of 1.11 MW m−2 [7], a two-lamp design delivering a radiative flux of 2.15 MW m−2 over a 8 mm dia. target [8], and a seven-lamp design, which, in combination with a CPC, delivers 2.87 MW m−2 over a 40 mm dia. target [9].

Setting t to a slightly larger value than in reality introduces small gaps between the reflectors that facilitate the installation and adjustment of the radiation modules.

1Corresponding authors.

Contributed by the Solar Energy Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF SOLAR ENERGY ENGINEERING: INCLUDING WIND ENERGY AND BUILDING ENERGY CONSERVATION. Manuscript received March 31, 2014; final manuscript received September 10, 2014; published online October 23, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Dr. Akiba Segal.

J. Sol. Energy Eng 137(2), 021012 (Oct 23, 2014) (9 pages) Paper No: SOL-14-1106; doi: 10.1115/1.4028702 History: Received March 31, 2014; Revised September 10, 2014

We present a systematic approach to the design of a set of high-flux solar simulators (HFSSs) for solar thermal, thermochemical, and materials research. The generic simulator concept consists of an array of identical radiation modules arranged in concentric rows. Each module consists of a short-arc lamp coupled to a truncated ellipsoidal specular reflector. The positions of the radiation modules are obtained based on the rim angle, the number of concentric rows, the number of radiation modules in each row, the reflector radius, and a reflector spacing parameter. For a fixed array of radiation modules, the reflector shape is optimized with respect to the source-to-target radiation transfer efficiency. The resulting radiative flux distribution is analyzed on flat and hemispherical target surfaces using the Monte Carlo ray-tracing technique. An example design consists of 18 radiation modules arranged in two concentric rows. On a 60-mm dia. flat target area at the focal plane, the predicted radiative power and flux are 10.6 kW and 3.8 MW m−2, respectively, and the predicted peak flux is 9.5 MW m−2.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2015 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Ries, H., and Schubnell, M., 1990, “The Optics of a Two-Stage Solar Furnace,” Sol. Energy Mater., 21(2–3), pp. 213–217. [CrossRef]
Haueter, P., Seitz, T., and Steinfeld, A., 1999, “A New High-Flux Solar Furnace for High-Temperature Thermochemical Research,” ASME J. Sol. Energy Eng., 121(1), pp. 77–80. [CrossRef]
Hildebrandt, A. F., and Vant-Hull, L. L., 1977, “Power With Heliostats,” Science, 197(4309), pp. 1139–1146. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Radosevich, L. G., and Skinrood, A. C., 1989, “The Power Production Operation of Solar One, the 10 MWe Solar Thermal Central Receiver Pilot Plant,” ASME J. Sol. Energy Eng., 111(2), pp. 144–151. [CrossRef]
Rabl, A., 1976, “Comparison of Solar Concentrators,” Sol. Energy, 18(2), pp. 93–111. [CrossRef]
Lovegrove, K., Burgess, G., and Pye, J., 2011, “A New 500 m2 Paraboloidal Dish Solar Concentrator,” Sol. Energy, 85(4), pp. 620–626. [CrossRef]
Gokon, N., Takahashi, S., Yamamoto, H., and Kodama, T., 2008, “Thermochemical Two-Step Water-Splitting Reactor With Internally Circulating Fluidized Bed for Thermal Reduction of Ferrite Particles,” Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 33(9), pp. 2189–2199. [CrossRef]
Tamaura, Y., and Kaneko, H., 2005, “Oxygen-Releasing Step of ZnFe2O4/(ZnO + Fe3O4)-System in Air Using Concentrated Solar Energy for Solar Hydrogen Production,” Sol. Energy, 78(5), pp. 616–622. [CrossRef]
Furler, P., Scheffe, J. R., and Steinfeld, A., 2012, “Syngas Production by Simultaneous Splitting of H2O and CO2 Via Ceria Redox Reactions in a High-Temperature Solar Reactor,” Energy Environ. Sci., 5(3), pp. 6098–6103. [CrossRef]
Kuhn, P., and Hunt, A., 1991, “A New Solar Simulator to Study High Temperature Solid-State Reactions With Highly Concentrated Radiation,” Sol. Energy Mater., 24(1–4), pp. 742–750. [CrossRef]
Hirsch, D., Zedtwitz, P. V., Osinga, T., Kinamore, J., and Steinfeld, A., 2003, “A New 75 kW High-Flux Solar Simulator for High-Temperature Thermal and Thermochemical Research,” ASME J. Sol. Energy Eng., 125(1), pp. 117–120. [CrossRef]
Petrasch, J., Coray, P., Meier, A., Brack, M., Häberling, P., Wuillemin, D., and Steinfeld, A., 2007, “A Novel 50 kW 11,000 Suns High-Flux Solar Simulator Based on an Array of Xenon Arc Lamps,” ASME J. Sol. Energy Eng., 129(4), pp. 405–411. [CrossRef]
Dibowski, H.-G., 2014, “High-Flux Solar Furnace and Xenon-High-Flux Solar Simulator,” accessed: Mar 28 2014, http://www.dlr.de/sf/en/desktopdefault.aspx/tabid-8558/14717_read-28267
Krueger, K. R., Davidson, J. H., and Lipiński, W., 2011, “Design of a New 45 kWe High-Flux Solar Simulator for High-Temperature Solar Thermal and Thermochemical Research,” ASME J. Sol. Energy Eng., 133(1), p. 011013. [CrossRef]
Krueger, K. R., Lipiński, W., and Davidson, J. H., 2013, “Operational Performance of the University of Minnesota 45 kWe High-Flux Solar Simulator,” ASME J. Sol. Energy Eng., 135(4), p. 044501. [CrossRef]
Sarwar, J., Georgakis, G., LaChance, R., and Ozalp, N., 2014, “Description and Characterization of an Adjustable Flux Solar Simulator for Solar Thermal, Thermochemical and Photovoltaic Applications,” Sol. Energy, 100, pp. 179–194. [CrossRef]
Osram, Manufacturer Data.
NREL, “Reference Solar Spectral Irradiance: Air Mass 1.5,” accessed July 10 2014, http://rredc.nrel.gov/solar/spectra/am1.5/
Siegel, R., and Howell, J. R., 2002, Thermal Radiation Heat Transfer, Taylor & Francis, NY.
Osram, XBO® Theater Lamps, Technology and Application.
Rabl, A., 1985, Active Solar Collectors and Their Applications, Oxford University, NY.
Duffie, J. A., and Beckman, W. A., 2006, Active Solar Collectors and Their Applications, Wiley, Hoboken, NJ.
Krueger, K. R., 2012, “Design and Characterization of a Concentrating Solar Simulator,” Ph.D. thesis, University of Minnesota Minneapolis, MN.
Petrasch, J., 2010, “A Free and Open Source Monte Carlo Ray Tracing Program for Concentrating Solar Energy Research,” ASME Paper No. ES2010-90206. [CrossRef]
Johnston, G., 1995, “On the Analysis of Surface Error Distributions on Concentrated Solar Collectors,” ASME J. Sol. Energy Eng., 117(4), pp. 294–296. [CrossRef]
Hischier, I., Poživil, P., and Steinfeld, A., 2012, “A Modular Ceramic Cavity-Receiver for High-Temperature High-Concentration Solar Applications,” ASME J. Sol. Energy Eng., 134(1), p. 011004. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Comparison of the emission spectrum of a xenon arc lamp (Osram XBO 6500 W OFR) [17] with the terrestrial solar spectrum (ASTM AM1.5) [18] and the emission spectrum of a blackbody at 6000 K

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Geometry of the radiation module consisting of an ellipsoidal reflector and a point light source (bold outlines); a hole of projected radius rap at the apex of the reflector provides access for the lamp; the dashed–dotted line indicates the symmetry axis of the radiation module

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Schematics of the solar simulator geometry: (a) projection of the truncation cross sections of the reflectors on the x-y plane; (b) horizontal cross section at y = 0, with the dashed–dotted line indicating the symmetry axis of the simulator

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Xenon short-arc lamp: (a) geometry: the gray area indicates the luminous area, modeled as a cylinder (adapted from Ref. [20]); (b) probability density function of the angular emission distribution of the lamp relative to the lamp axis (averaged circumferentially; 0 deg—pointing toward the apex of the reflector)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Interrelation between geometry parameters for fixed m = 2, nj = [6;12], and t = 20 mm, and variable rin and Φ: (a) minimal distance between HFSS and focal plane, lclear, (b) angular spacing between the reflector rows, αgap,1

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

3D rendering of the selected solar simulator geometry with the parameters listed in Table 2; circles (red) in the 18 reflector foci indicate the lamp positions

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Radiative flux distribution at the focal plane (in MW m−2)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

(a) Local radiative flux, mean radiative flux, and radiative power as functions of the radial coordinate from the center of the focal plane; (b) radiation transfer efficiency from the lamps to the focal plane as a function of the radial coordinate

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Radiative flux distribution on a hemispherical target surface of 0.2 m radius, with its base at the focal plane and the hemisphere extending behind the focal plane, for (a) the 18-lamp HFSS design presented in this paper and (b) the seven-lamp HFSS design with geometrical parameters listed in Table 5, which is similar to the design reported by Krueger et al. [14] (units of radiative flux: kW m−2)

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In