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Research Papers

Nanoparticles of Cadmium Nitrate and Cobalt Nitrate Complexes Bearing Phosphoramide Ligands Designed for Application in Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

[+] Author and Article Information
Zahra Shariatinia

Department of Chemistry,
Amirkabir University of
Technology (Polytechnic),
P.O. Box 15875-4413,
Tehran, Iran
e-mail: shariati@aut.ac.ir

Razieh Shajareh Tuba

Department of Chemistry,
Amirkabir University of
Technology (Polytechnic),
P.O. Box 15875-4413,
Tehran, Iran
e-mail: shajareh.razieh@yahoo.com

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Solar Energy Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF SOLAR ENERGY ENGINEERING. Manuscript received February 26, 2014; final manuscript received June 29, 2014; published online July 29, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Santiago Silvestre.

J. Sol. Energy Eng 137(1), 011006 (Jul 29, 2014) (9 pages) Paper No: SOL-14-1078; doi: 10.1115/1.4028005 History: Received February 26, 2014; Revised June 29, 2014

In this study, using ultrasonic method, nanoparticles of a new phosphoramide compound and its cobalt nitrate and cadmium nitrate complexes with formula (4-NO2-C6H4NH)P(O)Cl(NH-C5H4N-2) = L (1), Co(NO3)2(L)(CH3OH) (2), Cd(NO3)2(L)(CH3OH) (3) were synthesized and characterized by 31P, 1H, 13C NMR, fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), ultraviolet–visible (UV-Vis), fluorescence spectroscopy, and elemental analysis as well as field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microsopy (TEM), and XRD techniques. The FE-SEM and high-resolution TEM (HR-TEM) analyses showed that particle sizes of the compounds 1–3 are about 20–50 nm. The compounds 1–3 were utilized as dyes for adsorption of light in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) and the efficiencies of the cells were obtained equal to 0.42%, 0.49%, 0.54%, respectively. The analysis of band gap with density functional theory (DFT) calculations revealed that it decreases in the order 1 > 2 > 3, which is in consistent with the band gaps measured from fluorescence spectra. Comparing the conversion efficiencies of the three dyes illustrated that compound 3 with the smallest band gap yields the greatest efficiency.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

The FT-IR spectrum of compound 1

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Fig. 2

The FT-IR spectrum of compound 2

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Fig. 3

The FT-IR spectrum of compound 3

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Fig. 4

The fluorescence spectra of compounds 1–3

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Scheme 1

The synthesis pathway of dye compounds 1-3

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Fig. 5

The FE-SEM micrographs of compounds 1–3

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Fig. 6

The HR-TEM micrographs of compounds 1–3

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Fig. 7

The XRD patterns of compounds 1–3

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Fig. 8

The current–voltage (I–V) curves for compounds 1–3

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Fig. 9

The optimized structures of compounds 1–3

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Fig. 10

The energy levels and transitions of a desirable dye to yield high conversion efficiency

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Fig. 11

The HOMO and LUMO energy levels (and band gaps) of TiO2 and dyes 1–3 computed at B3LYP/LANL2DZ level

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