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Research Papers

Flexural Fatigue of Unbalanced Glass-Carbon Hybrid Composites

[+] Author and Article Information
Kevin B. Cox

Department of Engineering
Design and Materials,
Norwegian University of
Science and Technology,
Richard Birkelandsvei 2b,
Trondheim NO-7491, Norway
e-mail: Kevin.cox@ntnu.no

Nils-Petter Vedvik

Department of Engineering
Design and Materials,
Norwegian University of
Science and Technology,
Richard Birkelandsvei 2b,
Trondheim NO-7491, Norway
e-mail: Nils.p.vedvik@ntnu.no

Andreas T. Echtermeyer

Department of Engineering
Design and Materials,
Norwegian University of
Science and Technology,
Richard Birkelandsvei 2b,
Trondheim NO-7491, Norway
e-mail: Andreas.echtermeyer@ntnu.no

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Solar Energy Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF SOLAR ENERGY ENGINEERING: Including Wind Energy and Building Energy Conservation. Manuscript received October 15, 2013; final manuscript received May 20, 2014; published online June 10, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Yves Gagnon.

J. Sol. Energy Eng 136(4), 041011 (Jun 10, 2014) (8 pages) Paper No: SOL-13-1309; doi: 10.1115/1.4027751 History: Received October 15, 2013; Revised May 20, 2014

Unbalanced composite layups with bend-twist coupling show potential for aeroelastic tailoring in wind turbine blades. Before these materials can be implemented, their responses to long term cyclic loading must be considered. This paper studies the fatigue characteristics of an unbalanced glass-carbon hybrid laminate with a [45glass/−45glass/24carbon/24carbon]s layup. Flexural fatigue was performed at 7 different load magnitudes up to 1 × 106 cycles to characterize the failure modes and fatigue life of the composite. Stiffness degradation occurred on the tension side due to matrix cracking and small regions of delamination on the glass plies, whereas the failure mechanism of the laminate was by delamination between the glass and carbon. S-N curves were generated from experimental results and static finite element analyses (FEA) based on interlaminar shear stresses and were compared with laminates from previous literature. It was determined that the interlaminar stresses were influenced more so by the lower stiffness of the unbalanced layup than by the induced torsional deflections: leading to the conclusion that bend-twist coupling had little influence on flexural fatigue of glass-carbon hybrid composites.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Test setup and specimen deflection for maximum load case

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Fig. 5

Compliance increase versus cycle number for a tip load of 295 N

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Fig. 2

Experimental and quasi-static FEA tip load versus tip displacement curves

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Fig. 3

Interlaminar stress Sxz in MPa between (a) +45 deg and −45 deg glass plies and (b) −45 deg glass and +24 deg carbon plies

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Fig. 4

Interlaminar stress Syz between (a) +45 deg and −45 deg glass plies and (b) −45 deg glass and +24 deg carbon plies

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Fig. 6

Propagation of delamination front. The dashed line represents the location of the edge of the shelf.

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Fig. 7

Delaminated specimen (loaded to 394 N) after fatigue cycling

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Fig. 8

Fatigue curves based on delamination failure. The hollow data points represent runouts.

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Fig. 9

Interlaminar principal stress across the width of balanced and unbalanced laminates. The Unbal_A and balanced curves show the stresses at equivalent tip loads (255 N for this case) and the Unbal_B curve shows the stress at an equivalent tip deflection to the balanced laminate.

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