Research Papers

Flexural Fatigue of Unbalanced Glass-Carbon Hybrid Composites

[+] Author and Article Information
Kevin B. Cox

Department of Engineering
Design and Materials,
Norwegian University of
Science and Technology,
Richard Birkelandsvei 2b,
Trondheim NO-7491, Norway
e-mail: Kevin.cox@ntnu.no

Nils-Petter Vedvik

Department of Engineering
Design and Materials,
Norwegian University of
Science and Technology,
Richard Birkelandsvei 2b,
Trondheim NO-7491, Norway
e-mail: Nils.p.vedvik@ntnu.no

Andreas T. Echtermeyer

Department of Engineering
Design and Materials,
Norwegian University of
Science and Technology,
Richard Birkelandsvei 2b,
Trondheim NO-7491, Norway
e-mail: Andreas.echtermeyer@ntnu.no

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Solar Energy Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF SOLAR ENERGY ENGINEERING: Including Wind Energy and Building Energy Conservation. Manuscript received October 15, 2013; final manuscript received May 20, 2014; published online June 10, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Yves Gagnon.

J. Sol. Energy Eng 136(4), 041011 (Jun 10, 2014) (8 pages) Paper No: SOL-13-1309; doi: 10.1115/1.4027751 History: Received October 15, 2013; Revised May 20, 2014

Unbalanced composite layups with bend-twist coupling show potential for aeroelastic tailoring in wind turbine blades. Before these materials can be implemented, their responses to long term cyclic loading must be considered. This paper studies the fatigue characteristics of an unbalanced glass-carbon hybrid laminate with a [45glass/−45glass/24carbon/24carbon]s layup. Flexural fatigue was performed at 7 different load magnitudes up to 1 × 106 cycles to characterize the failure modes and fatigue life of the composite. Stiffness degradation occurred on the tension side due to matrix cracking and small regions of delamination on the glass plies, whereas the failure mechanism of the laminate was by delamination between the glass and carbon. S-N curves were generated from experimental results and static finite element analyses (FEA) based on interlaminar shear stresses and were compared with laminates from previous literature. It was determined that the interlaminar stresses were influenced more so by the lower stiffness of the unbalanced layup than by the induced torsional deflections: leading to the conclusion that bend-twist coupling had little influence on flexural fatigue of glass-carbon hybrid composites.

Copyright © 2014 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Wetzel, K. W., 2005, “Utility Scale Twist-Flap Coupled Blade Design,” J. Sol. Energy, 127, pp. 529–537. [CrossRef]
de Goeij, W. C., van Tooren, M. J., and Beukers, A., 1999, “Implementation of Bending-Torsion Coupling in the Design of a Wind-Turbine Rotor-Blade,” Appl. Energy, 63, pp. 191–207. [CrossRef]
Locke, J., and Valencia, U., 2004, “Design Studies for Twist-Coupled Wind Turbine Blades,” Sandia National Laboratories, Wichita, KS.
Cox, K., and Echtermeyer, A., 2013, “Geometric Scaling Effects of Bend-Twist Coupling in Rotor Blades,” Energy Procedia, 35, pp. 2–11. [CrossRef]
DNV, 2003, “Composite Components,” Det Norske Veritas, Høvik.
ISO 13003, 2003, “Fiber-Reinforced Plastics—Determination of Fatigue Properties Under Cyclic Loading Conditions,” ISO/TC 61, SC 13, Geneva.
Mandell, J., Samborsky, D., Agastra, P., Sears, A., and Wilson, T., 2010, “Analysis of SNL/MSU/DOE Fatigue Database Trends for Wind Turbine Blade Materials,” Sandia National Laboratories, Bozeman.
Agarwal, B. D., and Joneja, S. K., 1982, “Strain Controlled Flexural Fatigue of Unirectional Composites,” Compos. Technol. Rev., 4(1), pp. 6–13. [CrossRef]
Philippidis, T. P., and Vassilopoulus, A. P., 1999, “Fatigue of Composite Laminates Under Off-Axis Loading,” Int. J. Fatigue, 21, pp. 253–262. [CrossRef]
Awerbuch, J., and Hahn, H. T., 1981, “Off-Axis Fatigue of Graphite/Epoxy Composite,” Fatigue Fibrous Compos. Mater., ASTM International, Philadelphia PA, pp. 243–273. [CrossRef]
Belingardi, G., Cavatorta, M. P., and Frasca, C., 2006, “Bending Fatigue Behavior of Glass-Carbon/Epoxy Hybrid Composites,” Compos. Sci. Technol., 66, pp. 222–232. [CrossRef]
Kar, N. K., Barjasteh, E., Hu, Y., and Nutt, S. R., 2011, “Bending Fatigue of Hybrid Composite Rods,” Compos.: Part A, 42, pp. 328–336. [CrossRef]
Muri, G. B., Schaff, J. R., and Dobyns, A., 2001, Fatigue and Damage Tolerance Analysis of a Hybrid Composite Tapered Flexbeam, Langley Research Center, Washington DC.
Ong, C.-H., and Tsai, S. W., 1999, “Design, Manufacture and Testing of a Bend-Twist D-spar,” Sandia National Laboratories, Stanford, June.
Tsai, S. W., and Hahn, H. T., 1980, Introduction to Composite Materials, Technomic Publishing Company Inc., Westport, PA.
Herakovich, C. T., 1998, Mechanics of Fibrous Composites, John Wiley & Sons, New York.
Vasiliev, V. V., 1993, Mechanics of Composite Materials, 2nd ed., Taylor & Francis, London.
Lobitz, D. W., and Veers, P. S., 1998, “Aeroelastic Behavior of Twist-Coupled HAWT Blades,” American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Albuquerque, NM.
Hermann, T., Locke, J. E., and Wetzel, K. K., 2006, “Fabrication, Testing, and Analysis of Anisotropic Carbon/Glass Hybrid Compoites Volume 2: Test Data,” Sandia National Laboratories.
Department of Defense, 2002, Composite Materials Handbook: Volume 3. Polymer Matrix Compoites Materials Usage, Design, and Analysis, Department of Defense, Philadelphia, PA.
Lee, S., Gaudert, P. C., Dainty, R. C., and Scott, R. F., 1989, “Characterization of the Fracture Toughness Property (G1c) of Composite Laminates Using the Double Cantilever Beam Specimen,” Polym. Compos., 10(5), pp. 303–312. [CrossRef]
ISO 14125, 1998, “Fiber-Reinforced Plastic Composites: Determination of Flexural Properties,” ISO, Geneva, Switzerland.
Hashin, Z. Z., 1980, “Failure Criteria for Unidirectional Fiber Composites,” ASME J. Appl. Mech., 47(2), pp. 329–334. [CrossRef]
ABAQUS CAE, 2011, “ABAQUS 6.11 Online Documentation Collection,” Computer Software, Providence, RI.
Mayer, R., ed., 1996, Design of Composite Structures Against Fatigue: Applications to Wind Turbine Blades, Mechanical Engineering Publications Limited, Bury St. Edmunds, Suffolk, UK.
Samborsky, D. D., Wilson, T. J., Agastra, P., and Mandell, J. F., 2008, “Delamination at Thick Ply Drops in Carbon and Glass Fiber Laminates Under Fatigue Loading,” ASME J. Sol. Energy Eng., 130(3), p. 031001. [CrossRef]
Mall, S., Yun, K.-T., and Kochhar, N., 1989, “Characterization of Matrix Thoughness Effect on Cycling Delamination Growth in Graphite Fiber Composites,” Compos. Mater.: Fatigue Fract., Vol. 2, ASTM STP 1012, P.A. Lagace, ed., American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, PA, pp. 296–310.
Asp, L. E., Sjögren, A., and Greenhalgh, E. S., 2001, “Delamination Growth and Thresholds in a Carbon/Epoxy Composite Under Fatigue Loading,” J. Compos. Technol. Res., 23(2), pp. 55–68. [CrossRef]
Kenane, M., and Benzeggagh, M. L., 1997, “Mixed-Mode Delamination Fracture Toughness of Unidirectional Glass/Epoxy Composites Under Fatigue Loading,” Compos. Sci. Technol., 57, pp. 597–605. [CrossRef]
Echtermeyer, A. T., Hayman, E., and Ronold, K. O., 1996, “Comparison of Fatigue Curves for Glass Composite Laminates,” Design of Composite Structures Against Fatigue, R. M.Mayer, ed., Mechanical Engineering Publications Limited, Bury St. Edmunds, Suffolk, UK, pp. 209–226.


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Test setup and specimen deflection for maximum load case

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Experimental and quasi-static FEA tip load versus tip displacement curves

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Interlaminar stress Sxz in MPa between (a) +45 deg and −45 deg glass plies and (b) −45 deg glass and +24 deg carbon plies

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Interlaminar stress Syz between (a) +45 deg and −45 deg glass plies and (b) −45 deg glass and +24 deg carbon plies

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Compliance increase versus cycle number for a tip load of 295 N

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Propagation of delamination front. The dashed line represents the location of the edge of the shelf.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Delaminated specimen (loaded to 394 N) after fatigue cycling

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Fatigue curves based on delamination failure. The hollow data points represent runouts.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Interlaminar principal stress across the width of balanced and unbalanced laminates. The Unbal_A and balanced curves show the stresses at equivalent tip loads (255 N for this case) and the Unbal_B curve shows the stress at an equivalent tip deflection to the balanced laminate.




Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In