Research Papers

Efficient Solar Desalination System Using Humidification/Dehumidification Process

[+] Author and Article Information
Adel M. Abdel Dayem

Mechanical Engineering Department,
College of Engineering and Islamic Architecture,
Umm Al-Qura University,
P.O. Box 5555
Makkah, Saudi Arabia
e-mail: amabdeen@uqu.edu.sa

1Permanent address: Mechanical Power Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Mattarria, Helwan University, 11718 Cairo, Egypt.

Contributed by the Solar Energy Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF SOLAR ENERGY ENGINEERING: INCLUDING WIND ENERGYAND BUILDING ENERGY CONSERVATION. Manuscript received February 8, 2012; final manuscript received May 14, 2014; published online June 20, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Werner Platzer.

J. Sol. Energy Eng 136(4), 041014 (Jun 20, 2014) (9 pages) Paper No: SOL-12-1034; doi: 10.1115/1.4027725 History: Received February 08, 2012; Revised May 14, 2014

An innovative solar desalination system is successfully designed, manufactured, and experimentally tested at Makkah, 21.4 degN. The system consists of 1.15 m2 flat-plate collector as a heat source and a desalination unit. The unit is about 400 l vertical cylindrical insulated tank. It includes storage, evaporator, and condenser of hot salt-water that is fed from the collector. The heated water in the collector is raised naturally to the unit bottom at which it is used as storage. A high pressure pump is used to inject the water vertically up through 1-mm three nozzles inside the unit. The hot salt-water is atomized inside the unit where the produced vapor is condensed on the inner surfaces of the unit outer walls to outside. The system was experimentally tested under different weather conditions. It is obtained that the system can produce about 9 l a day per quadratic meter of collector surface area. By that it can produce about 1.6 l/kWh of solar energy. Moreover, the water temperature has a great effect on the system performance although the scaling possibility is becoming significant. By that way the cost of a liter water production is relatively high and is obtained as 0.5 US$.

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Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the solar desalination system

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Fig. 2

Photograph of the solar water desalination system

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Fig. 3

Time variation of the system production and efficiency using solar energy only at Sept. 16, 2010

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Fig. 4

Performance of the system at May days

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Fig. 5

Time variation of the system temperatures using solar energy only at Sept. 16, 2010

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Fig. 6

Time variation of relative humidity inside the condenser humidity using solar energy only at May 7, 2010

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Fig. 7

Time variation of the system production and efficiency using electrical heater only at 75 °C set point

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Fig. 8

Time variation of the system temperatures using electrical heater only at 75 °C set point

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Fig. 9

Time variation of the system production and efficiency using electrical heater only at 97 °C set point

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Fig. 10

Time variation of the system temperatures using electrical heater only at 97 °C set point

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Fig. 11

Desalinated water production per kWh of input energy

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Fig. 12

Effect of the salt-water temperature on the desalinated water production

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Fig. 13

Annual variation of the ambient temperature

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Fig. 14

Annual variation of the relative humidity



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