0
Research Papers

Fast Pyrolysis of Biomass Pellets Using Concentrated Solar Radiation: A Numerical Study

[+] Author and Article Information
Saeed Danaei Kenarsari

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Wyoming,
1000 E. University Avenue,
Laramie, WY 82071
e-mail: sdanaeik@uwyo.edu

Yuan Zheng

Mem. ASME
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Wyoming,
1000 E. University Avenue,
Laramie, WY 82071
e-mail: Yzheng1@uwyo.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Solar Energy Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF SOLAR ENERGY ENGINEERING. Manuscript received October 10, 2013; final manuscript received March 6, 2014; published online May 13, 2014. Editor: Gilles Flamant.

J. Sol. Energy Eng 136(4), 041004 (May 13, 2014) (7 pages) Paper No: SOL-13-1305; doi: 10.1115/1.4027266 History: Received October 10, 2013; Revised March 06, 2014

Since the 1990s, mountain pine beetles have infested mature pine trees in the forests of western North America. Fast pyrolysis is an encouraging method to convert the beetle killed pine trees into bio-oils. In this study, an unsteady-state mathematical model is developed to simulate fast pyrolysis under concentrated solar radiation. Conservation equations of total mass, species, and energy, coupled with the chemical kinetics model, have been developed and solved to simulate fast pyrolysis of cylindrical biomass pellets in a quartz reactor exposed to various radiant heating fluxes. This study demonstrates the importance of the secondary reactions on fast pyrolysis products.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2014 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Kumar, A., 2009, “A Conceptual Comparison of Bioenergy Options for Using Mountain Pine Beetle Infested Wood in Western Canada,” Bioresour. Technol., 100(1), pp. 387–399. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Jenkins, M. J., Hebertson, E., Page, W., and Jorgensen, C. A., 2008, “Bark Beetles, Fuels, Fires and Implications for Forest Management in the Intermountain West,” For. Ecol. Manage., 254(1), pp. 16–34. [CrossRef]
Robbins, J., 2008, “Bark Beetles Kill Millions of Acres of Trees in West,” New York Times, http://www.nytimes.com/2008/11/18/science/18trees.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0
Bentz, B., et al. ., eds, 2005, “Bark Beetle Outbreaks in Western North America: Causes and Consequences,” Bark Beetle Symposium, Snowbird, UT, http://www.fs.fed.us/rm/pubs_other/rmrs_2009_bentz_b001.pdf
Foster, G., 2012, “Pine Beetle Infestation and Fire Risk in the Black Hills,” http://www.defendblackhills.org/document/firerisk2.pdf
Sims, C., Aadland, D., and Finnoff, D., 2010, “A Dynamic Bioeconomic Analysis of Mountain Pine Beetle Epidemics,” J. Econ. Dyn. Control, 34(12), pp. 2407–2419. [CrossRef]
Bridgwater, A., 1999, “Principles and Practice of Biomass Fast Pyrolysis Processes for Liquids,” J. Anal. Appl. Pyrol., 51(1), pp. 3–22. [CrossRef]
Rudolph, J. A., 2012, “Impacts of Beetle Kill on Modeled Streamflow Response in the North Platte River Basin,” MS thesis, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN.
Ortega, J. V., Renehan, A. M., Liberatore, M. W., and Herring, A. M., 2011, “Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Aging Pyrolysis Oils Produced From Hardwood and Softwood Feedstocks,” J. Anal. Appl. Pyrol., 91(1), pp. 190–198. [CrossRef]
Kersten, S. R., Wang, X., Prins, W., and van Swaaij, W. P., 2005, “Biomass Pyrolysis in a Fluidized Bed Reactor. Part 1: Literature Review and Model Simulations,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 44(23), pp. 8773–8785. [CrossRef]
Luo, Z., Wang, S., and Cen, K., 2005, “A Model of Wood Flash Pyrolysis in Fluidized Bed Reactor,” Renewable Energy, 30(3), pp. 377–392. [CrossRef]
Papadikis, K., Gu, S., and Bridgwater, A., 2009, “CFD Modelling of the Fast Pyrolysis of Biomass in Fluidised Bed Reactors. Part B: Heat, Momentum and Mass Transport in Bubbling Fluidised Beds,” Chem. Eng. Sci., 64(5), pp. 1036–1045. [CrossRef]
Xue, Q., Heindel, T., and Fox, R., 2011, “A CFD Model for Biomass Fast Pyrolysis in Fluidized-Bed Reactors,” Chem. Eng. Sci., 66(11), pp. 2440–2452. [CrossRef]
Wang, X., Kersten, S. R., Prins, W., and van Swaaij, W. P., 2005, “Biomass Pyrolysis in a Fluidized Bed Reactor. Part 2: Experimental Validation of Model Results,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 44(23), pp. 8786–8795. [CrossRef]
Antal, M. J., Hofmann, L., Moreira, J., Brown, C., and Steenblik, R., 1983, “Design and Operation of a Solar Fired Biomass Flash Pyrolysis Reactor,” Sol. Energy, 30(4), pp. 299–312. [CrossRef]
Lédé, J., 1999, “Solar Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass,” Sol. Energy, 65(1), pp. 3–13. [CrossRef]
Authier, O., Ferrer, M., Mauviel, G., Khalfi, A.-E., and Lédé, J., 2009, “Wood Fast Pyrolysis: Comparison of Lagrangian and Eulerian Modeling Approaches With Experimental Measurements,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 48(10), pp. 4796–4809. [CrossRef]
Al-Haddad, M., Rendek, E., Corriou, J.-P., and Mauviel, G., 2010, “Biomass Fast Pyrolysis: Experimental Analysis and Modeling Approach,” Energy Fuels, 24(9), pp. 4689–4692. [CrossRef]
Grønli, M. G., 1996, “A Theoretical and Experimental Study of the Thermal Degradation of Biomass,” Ph.D. thesis, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
Bradbury, A. G., Sakai, Y., and Shafizadeh, F., 1979, “A Kinetic Model for Pyrolysis of Cellulose,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 23(11), pp. 3271–3280. [CrossRef]
Chan, W.-C. R., Kelbon, M., and Krieger, B. B., 1985, “Modelling and Experimental Verification of Physical and Chemical Processes During Pyrolysis of a Large Biomass Particle,” Fuel, 64(11), pp. 1505–1513. [CrossRef]
Wagenaar, B., Prins, W., and Van Swaaij, W., 1993, “Flash Pyrolysis Kinetics of Pine Wood,” Fuel Process. Technol., 36(1), pp. 291–298. [CrossRef]
Di Blasi, C., 1993, “Analysis of Convection and Secondary Reaction Effects Within Porous Solid Fuels Undergoing Pyrolysis,” Combust. Sci. Technol., 90(5-6), pp. 315–340. [CrossRef]
Babu, B., and Chaurasia, A., 2004, “Heat Transfer and Kinetics in the Pyrolysis of Shrinking Biomass Particle,” Chem. Eng. Sci., 59(10), pp. 1999–2012. [CrossRef]
Zabaniotou, A., and Damartzis, T., 2007, “Modelling the Intra-Particle Transport Phenomena and Chemical Reactions of Olive Kernel Fast Pyrolysis,” J. Anal. Appl. Pyrol., 80(1), pp. 187–194. [CrossRef]
Koufopanos, C., Papayannakos, N., Maschio, G., and Lucchesi, A., 1991, “Modelling of the Pyrolysis of Biomass Particles. Studies on Kinetics, Thermal and Heat Transfer Effects,” Canadian J. Chem. Eng., 69(4), pp. 907–915. [CrossRef]
Lewis, R. W., Morgan, K., Thomas, H., and Seetharamu, K., 1996, The Finite Element Method in Heat Transfer Analysis, John Wiley & Sons, Chap. 6.
Van de Velden, M., Baeyens, J., and Boukis, I., 2008, “Modeling CFB Biomass Pyrolysis Reactors,” Biomass and Bioenergy, 32(2), pp. 128–139. [CrossRef]
Peacocke, G., and Bridgwater, A., 1994, “Ablative Plate Pyrolysis of Biomass for Liquids,” Biomass and Bioenergy, 7(1), pp. 147–154. [CrossRef]
Graham, R., Freel, B., Huffman, D., and Bergougnou, M., 1994, “Commercial-Scale Rapid Thermal Processing of Biomass,” Biomass and Bioenergy, 7(1), pp. 251–258. [CrossRef]
Shen, J., Wang, X.-S., Garcia-Perez, M., Mourant, D., Rhodes, M. J., and Li, C.-Z., 2009, “Effects of Particle Size on the Fast Pyrolysis of Oil Mallee Woody Biomass,” Fuel, 88(10), pp. 1810–1817. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Modified Broido–Shafizadeh mechanism

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Biomass pellet under concentrated solar radiation

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Temperature distribution across the biomass pellet at 5 s for heat flux of 0.8 MW m−2

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Pellet average temperature as a function of time for heat fluxes of 0.3 and 0.8 MW m−2

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Comparison of present simulation results (oak) with experimental data of mass losses as a function of the pyrolysis time for heat flux of (a) 0.3 MW m−2 and (b) 0.8 MW m−2

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Comparison of present simulation results (oak) with experimental data of gases mass as a function of the pyrolysis time for heat flux of (a) 0.3 MW m−2 and (b) 0.8 MW m−2

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Comparison of present simulation results (oak) with experimental data of vapors mass as a function of the pyrolysis time for heat flux of (a) 0.3 MW m−2 and (b) 0.8 MW m−2

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Comparison of present simulation results (oak) with experimental data of char mass as a function of the pyrolysis time for heat flux of (a) 0.3 MW m−2 and (b) 0.8 MW m−2

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Maximum bio-oil yields for various biomass feedstock

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In