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Research Papers

Coupled Experimental Study and Thermodynamic Modeling of Melting Point and Thermal Stability of Li2CO3-Na2CO3-K2CO3 Based Salts

[+] Author and Article Information
Chunlin Chen

CSIRO Process Science and Engineering,
Bayview Avenue,
Clayton Vic 3169, Australia
e-mail: Chunlin.chen@csiro.au

Ty Tran, Steven Wright, Shouyi Sun

CSIRO Process Science and Engineering,
Bayview Avenue,
Clayton Vic 3169, Australia

Rene Olivares

CSIRO Energy Technology,
10 Murray Dwyer Circuit,
Mayfield West NSW 2304, Australia

Contributed by the Solar Energy Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF SOLAR ENERGY ENGINEERING. Manuscript received February 6, 2013; final manuscript received March 6, 2014; published online May 2, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Robert Palumbo.

J. Sol. Energy Eng 136(3), 031017 (May 02, 2014) (7 pages) Paper No: SOL-13-1046; doi: 10.1115/1.4027264 History: Received February 06, 2013; Revised March 06, 2014

Nitrate based salts have application as a heat transfer fluid and thermal energy storage media in solar field installations and are normally used from 200 °C up to maximum temperatures of ∼550 °C. Molten K2CO3-Na2CO3-Li2CO3 could potentially be used as heat transfer fluid and thermal energy storage media to replace nitrate salts due to its wider temperature operating window (400–900 °C), which improves the heat transfer efficiency. There will be improved operability and the process will be more economical viable if the lower temperature at which carbonate salts can operate could be decreased. This paper explores the melting point and high temperature stability of K2CO3-Na2CO3-Li2CO3 based salt mixtures, the effect of atmosphere and the effect of additives to the melt using experimental investigation and thermodynamic modeling.

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References

Figures

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Fig. 1

Calculated phase diagram for the Na2CO3-K2CO3 system in comparison with the experimental data [19-21]

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Fig. 2

Calculated mixing enthalpy of liquid for the Na2CO3-K2CO3 system in comparison with the experimental data [20]

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Fig. 3

Calculated phase diagram for the Na2CO3-Li2CO3 system in comparison with the experimental data [20,22]

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Fig. 4

Calculated phase diagram for the K2CO3-Li2CO3 system in comparison with the experimental data[20,22]

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Fig. 6

Decomposition pressure of CO2 of various carbonates

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Fig. 7

Thermostability of Li2CO3-Na2CO3-K2CO3 system at elevated temperatures under various atmospheres

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Fig. 5

Calculated phase diagram for the K2CO3-Na2CO3-Li2CO3 system in comparison with the experimental data [23]. The dashed lines are from experiment, solid lines are from model calculation. The solid point is the calculated eutectic composition, and the open point is the experimentally measured eutectic composition.

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Fig. 11

Effect of Rb2CO3 and Cs2CO3 on the melting point of eutectic Li2CO3-Na2CO3-K2CO3 salt

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Fig. 12

Effect of Rb2CO3 and Cs2CO3 on the thermal stability of Li2CO3-K2CO3-Na2CO3 salt

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Fig. 8

Effect of Li/Na/KOH on the melting point of eutectic Li2CO3-Na2CO3-K2CO3 salt

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Fig. 9

Thermostability of Li2CO3-Na2CO3-K2CO3 system at elevated temperatures under various atmospheres

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Fig. 10

Decomposition of hydroxides at elevated temperatures

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