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Research Papers

Energy Analysis of Solar Home Lighting System With Microcontroller-Based Charge Controller

[+] Author and Article Information
Ashutosh S. Werulkar

Department of Electronics
and Telecommunication Engineering,
St. Vincent Pallotti College of Engineering and Technology,
Gavsi Manapur, Wardha Road,
Nagpur 440027, India
e-mail: ashutoshwerulkar@gmail.com

P. S. Kulkarni

Department of Electrical Engineering,
Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology,
Nagpur 440010, India

Contributed by the Solar Energy Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF SOLAR ENERGY ENGINEERING. Manuscript received September 16, 2013; final manuscript received January 29, 2014; published online March 04, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Santiago Silvestre.

J. Sol. Energy Eng 136(3), 031010 (Mar 04, 2014) (9 pages) Paper No: SOL-13-1253; doi: 10.1115/1.4026679 History: Received September 16, 2013; Revised January 29, 2014

In this paper, a solar powered home lighting system in the Electrical Engineering Department of Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology (VNIT), Nagpur is analyzed for energy using a personal computer simulation program with integrated circuit emphasis (circuit simulation software, PSpice 9.1). The home lighting system consists of a solar panel of 37 Wp, a 45 Ah battery, a solar charge controller, dc loads of two 9 W compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs), and a dc fan of 14 W. Through the solar panel, the battery is charged during day time. In the night, when solar power is not available, the battery provides power as a backup to the dc load consisting of two CFLs and a dc fan. The aim of the paper is to analyze the solar home lighting system for energy gain/loss with a microcontroller-based charge controller. From the analysis, it is concluded that the solar home lighting system is not designed for continuous energy gain as per manufacturer's specifications. The design needs to be modified to have energy gain in the system for Nagpur, India. A designed microcontroller-based charge controller is also analyzed. The advantages of a microcontroller 89C2051-based charge controller are its simple design, low cost, logic change facility with change of programming of microcontroller, presence of liquid crystal display (LCD) with battery charge status, and display of different messages. Ride software is used as an assembler for generating the required hex file of program and it is used for burning in the microcontroller IC with the help of Vegarobokit (a microcontroller programmer developer) to make a microcontroller programmer.

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References

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Barca, G., Moschetto, A., Sapuppo, C., Tina, G. M., Giusto, R., and Grasso, A. D., 2008, “A Novel MPPT Charge Regulator for a Photovoltaic Stand-Alone Telecommunication System,” International Symposium on Power Electronics, Electrical Drives, Automation and Motion (SPEEDAM 2008), Ischia, Italy, June 11–13, pp. 235–238.
Hua, C.-C., 2005, “Implementation of a Stand-Alone Photovoltaic Lighting System With MPPT, Battery Charger and High Brightness LEDs,” International Conference on Power Electronics and Drives Systems (PEDS 2005), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, November 28-December 1, pp. 1601–1605. [CrossRef]
Hussein, H. A.-H., Pepper, M., Harb, A., and Bartarseh, I., 2009, “An Efficient Solar Charging Algorithm for Different Battery Chemistries,” IEEE Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference (VPPC '09), Dearborn, MI, September 7–10, pp. 188–193. [CrossRef]
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Werulkar, A. S., and Kulkarni, P. S., 2011, “Analysis of Microcontroller Based Solar Charge Controller for Solar Home Lighting System,” International Conference on Advances in Energy Research (ICAER 2011) IIT, Bombay, India, December 9–11.
Werulkar, A. S., and Kulkarni, P. S., 2012, “Design of a Constant Current Solar Charge Controller With Microcontroller Based Soft Switching Buck Converter for Solar Home Lighting System,” IEEE International Conference on Power Electronics, Drives and Energy Systems (PEDES 2012), Bangalore India, December 16-19. [CrossRef]
Werulkar, A., Shankar, D., and Kulkarni, P. S., 2013, “A Soft Switching Boost Converter With Simulation of Maximum Power Point Tracking for Solar Home Lighting System,” Int. J. ChemTech Res., 5(2), pp. 935–946.
Werulkar, A. S., Kulkarni, P. S., and Sahusakde, A., 2010, “Simulation and Energy Balance Study in Solar Home Lighting System,” All India Seminar on Power System: Control, Operation and Maintenance (PSCOM-2010), Chandrapur, India, December 4–5, pp. 83–88.
Werulkar, A. S., Kulkarni, P. S., and Sahusakde, A., 2011, “Energy Analysis of Solar Home Lighting System,” 1st India International Energy Summit (IEES-2011), Nagpur, India, January 27–30, pp. 64–81.

Figures

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Fig. 1

Equivalent circuit of a solar module

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Fig. 2

Solar home lighting system in VNIT campus

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Fig. 3

Simulated I–V characteristics of a 37 Wp solar panel

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Fig. 4

Simulated P–V characteristics of a 37 Wp solar panel

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Fig. 6

Bar chart of solar global radiation of Nagpur from Dec. 10, 2012 to Dec. 14, 2012

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Fig. 7

Bar chart of solar global radiation of Nagpur from Dec. 15, 2012 to Dec. 20, 2012

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Fig. 5

PSpice diagram of PV module with a battery connected to load with converter

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Fig. 8

Plot of average global solar insolation of Nagpur on Dec. 18, 2012 from 7 AM to 5 PM

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Fig. 9

Plot of average global solar insolation of Nagpur on Dec. 19, 2012 from 7 AM to 5 PM

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Fig. 10

I–V characteristics of a 37 Wp solar panel of a solar home lighting system at 702 W/m2 and 25.9 °C

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Fig. 11

P–V characteristics of a 37 Wp solar panel of a solar home lighting system at 702 W/m2 and 25.9 °C

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Fig. 15

Plot of battery energy when load is switched on between 11:00 h and 15:00 h

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Fig. 16

Plot of battery energy when load is switched on between 11:00 h and 15:00 h for two consecutive days, Dec. 18, 2012 and Dec. 19, 2012

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Fig. 17

Plot of battery energy when load is switched on between 11:00 h and 13:30 h for two consecutive days, Dec. 18, 2012 and Dec. 19, 2012

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Fig. 12

Plot of battery current of a solar home lighting system on Dec. 18, 2012, assuming solar home lighting load is zero throughout the day

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Fig. 13

Plot of energy cycle of the battery of solar home lighting system on Dec. 18, 2012, with full load of 2 CFLs and 1 dc fan applied for 24 h

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Fig. 14

Plot of battery energy when load is switched on between 19:00 h and 23:00 h

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Fig. 18

Plot of battery energy when load is switched on between 11:00 h and 15:00 h for two consecutive days, Dec. 18, 2012 and Dec. 19, 2012, after addition of one 10 Wp solar panel in parallel

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Fig. 19

Circuit diagram of microcontroller-based solar charge controller

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Fig. 20

Flow chart of charge controller

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Fig. 21

Battery charging voltage as a function of time

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Fig. 22

Battery charging current as a function of time

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Fig. 23

Battery discharge voltage as a function of time

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