Research Papers

Energy and Exergy Study of Effective Parameters on Performance of Photovoltaic/Thermal Natural Air Collectors

[+] Author and Article Information
M. Gholampour

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Faculty of Engineering,
Shahid Bahonar University,
Kerman 76169-133, Iran

M. Ameri

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Faculty of Engineering,
Shahid Bahonar University,
Kerman 76169-133, Iran
Energy and Environmental Engineering
Research Center,
Shahid Bahonar University,
Kerman 76169-133, Iran
e-mail: ameri_mm@mail.uk.ac.ir

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Solar Energy Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF SOLAR ENERGY ENGINEERING. Manuscript received September 27, 2012; final manuscript received October 22, 2013; published online January 10, 2014. Editor: Gilles Flamant.

J. Sol. Energy Eng 136(3), 031001 (Jan 10, 2014) (11 pages) Paper No: SOL-12-1254; doi: 10.1115/1.4026250 History: Received September 27, 2012; Revised October 22, 2013

Photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) system is a kind of solar system that converts solar energy to electrical and thermal energy simultaneously. In this paper, the effect of some parameters, such as packing factor, fin number, and fin height as well as environmental and dimensional parameters on the performance of the PV/T system with natural air flow from the energetic and exergetic viewpoint, has been studied. For this purpose, a theoretical model is developed and validated. Induced mass flow rate and PV temperature are well-predicted, compared with existing numerical data, available in the literature. It is found that thermal efficiency of the PV/T systems decreases slightly with the increase in packing factor, while PV efficiency increases sharply. The first-law efficiency and second-law efficiency of the system increase with the increase in the fin number and fin height. Also, results show that increasing exit diameter is a favorable factor from the first-law efficiency viewpoint, while it has an unfavorable effect on the second-law efficiency.

Copyright © 2014 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Kern, E. C. J., and Russell, M. C., 1978, “Combined Photovoltaic and Thermal Hybrid Collector Systems,” 13th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, Washington, DC, June 4-8, pp. 1153–1157.
Florschuetz, L., 1979, “Extension of the Hottel-Whillier Model to the Analysis of Combined Photovoltaic/Thermal Flat Plate Collectors,” Sol. Energy, 22(4), pp. 361–366. [CrossRef]
Hottel, H., and Woertz, B., 1942, “Performance of Flat-Plate Solar-Heat Collectors,” Trans. ASME, 64, pp. 91–104.
Lalović, B., Kiss, Z., and Weakliem, H., 1986, “A Hybrid Amorphous Silicon Photovoltaic and Thermal Solar Collector,” Sol. Cells, 19(2), pp. 131–138. [CrossRef]
Prakash, J., 1994, “Transient Analysis of a Photovoltaic-Thermal Solar Collector for Co-Generation of Electricity and Hot Air/Water,” Energy Convers. Manage., 35(11), pp. 967–972. [CrossRef]
Moshfegh, B., and Sandberg, M., 1996, “Investigation of Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in a Vertical Channel Heated From One Side by PV Elements, Part I—Numerical Study,” Renewable Energy, 8(1–4), pp. 248–253. [CrossRef]
Sandberg, M., and Moshfegh, B., 1996, “Investigation of Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in a Vertical Channel Heated From One Side by PV Elements, Part II—Experimental Study,” Renewable Energy, 8(1–4), pp. 254–258. [CrossRef]
Brinkworth, B. J., Marshall, R. H., and Ibarahim, Z., 2000, “A Validated Model of Naturally Ventilated PV Cladding,” Sol. Energy, 69(1), pp. 67–81. [CrossRef]
Zondag, H. A., de Vries, D. W., van Helden, W. G. J., van Zolingen, R. J. C., and van Steenhoven, A. A., 2003, “The Yield of Different Combined PV-Thermal Collector Designs,” Sol. Energy, 74(3), pp. 253–269. [CrossRef]
Vaillon, R., Robin, L., Muresan, C., and Ménézo, C., 2006, “Modeling of Coupled Spectral Radiation, Thermal and Carrier Transport in a Silicon Photovoltaic Cell,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 49(23–24), pp. 4454–4468. [CrossRef]
Fossa, M., Ménézo, C., and Leonardi, E., 2008, “Experimental Natural Convection on Vertical Surfaces for Building Integrated Photovoltaic (BIPV) Applications,” Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci., 32(4), pp. 980–990. [CrossRef]
Tonui, J. K., and Tripanagnostopoulos, Y., 2008, “Performance Improvement of PV/T Solar Collectors With Natural Air Flow Operation,” Sol. Energy, 82(1), pp. 1–12. [CrossRef]
Ameri, M., Mahmoudabadi, M. M., and Shahsavar, A., 2012, “An Experimental Study on a Photovoltaic/Thermal (PV/T) Air Collector With Direct Coupling of Fans and Panels,” Energy Sources, 34(10), pp. 929–947. [CrossRef]
Shahsavar, A., and Ameri, M., 2010, “Experimental Investigation and Modeling of a Direct-Coupled PV/T Air Collector,” Sol. Energy, 84(11), pp. 1938–1958. [CrossRef]
Fujisawa, T., and Tani, T., 1997, “Annual Exergy Evaluation on Photovoltaic-Thermal Hybrid Collector,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells, 47(1–4), pp. 135–148. [CrossRef]
Joshi, A. S., and Tiwari, A., 2007, “Energy and Exergy Efficiencies of a Hybrid Photovoltaic–Thermal (PV/T) Air Collector,” Renewable Energy, 32(13), pp. 2223–2241. [CrossRef]
Ewa, R., 2009, “Performance Analysis of a Photovoltaic-Thermal Integrated System,” Int. J. Photoenergy, 2009, pp. 1–6. [CrossRef]
Shahsavar, A., Ameri, M., and Gholampour, M., 2012, “Energy and Exergy Analysis of a Photovoltaic-Thermal Collector With Natural Air Flow,” ASME J. Sol. Energy Eng., 134, p. 011014. [CrossRef]
Chow, T. T., Pei, G., Fong, K. F., Lin, Z., Chan, A. L. S., and Ji, J., 2009, “Energy and Exergy Analysis of Photovoltaic–Thermal Collector With and Without Glass Cover,” Appl. Energy, 86(3), pp. 310–316. [CrossRef]
Tsuji, T., and Nagano, Y., 1988, “Characteristics of a Turbulent Natural Convection Boundary Layer Along a Vertical Flat Plate,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 31(8), pp. 1723–1734. [CrossRef]
Smolec, W., and Thomas, A., 1994, “Problems Encountered in Heat Transfer Studies of a Trombe Wall,” Energy Convers. Manage., 35(6), pp. 483–491. [CrossRef]
Incropera, F. P., and De Witt, D. P., 1985, Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer, John Wiley & Sons, New York.
Duffie, J. A., and Beckman, W. A., 1991, Solar Engineering of Thermal Processes, John Wiley & Sons, New York.
Klein, S., 1975, “Calculation of Flat-Plate Collector Loss Coefficients,” Sol. Energy, 17(1), pp. 79–80. [CrossRef]
Hollands, K. G. T., Unny, T. E., Raithby, G. D., and Konicek, L., 1976, “Free Convective Heat Transfer Across Inclined Air Layers,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 98(2), pp. 189–193. [CrossRef]
Garg, H. P., Bharagaba, A. K., and Agarwal, R. K., 1989, “Experimental and Theoretical Studies on a Photovoltaic/Thermal Hybrid Solar Collector Water Heater,” ISES Solar World Congress, Kobe Japan, September 4-8, Vol. 1, pp. 701–705.
Hayakashi, B., Mizusaki, K., Satoh, T., and Hatanaka, T., 1989, “Research and Development of Photovoltaic/Thermal Hybrid Solar Power Generation System,” ISES Solar World Congress, Kobe, Japan, September 4-8, Vol. 1, pp. 302–306.
Bergene, T., and Bjerke, B., 1993, “Thermodynamic Considerations Concerning the Efficiency and Possible Utilization of Combined Quantum/Thermal Solar Energy Converters,” ISES Solar World Congress, Budapest, Hungary, August 23-27, Vol. 4, pp. 25–30.
Bergene, T., and Løvvik, O. M., 1995, “Model Calculations on a Flat-Plate Solar Heat Collector With Integrated Solar Cells,” Sol. Energy, 55(6), pp. 453–462. [CrossRef]
Garg, H., and Adhikari, R., 1997, “Conventional Hybrid Photovoltaic/Thermal (PV/T) Air Heating Collectors: Steady-State Simulation,” Renewable Energy, 11(3), pp. 363–385. [CrossRef]
Cengel, Y., and Boles, M., 1989, Thermodynamics—An Engineering Approach, McGraw-Hill, New York.
Tiwari, A., Sodha, M., Chandra, A., and Joshi, J., 2006, “Performance Evaluation of Photovoltaic Thermal Solar Air Collector for Composite Climate of India,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells, 90(2), pp. 175–189. [CrossRef]
Petela, R., 1964, “Exergy of Heat Radiation,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 86(2), pp. 187–192. [CrossRef]
Spanner, D. C., 1964, Introduction to Thermodynamics, Academic Press, London.
SheldonM, J., 1981, “Maximum Conversion Efficiency for the Utilization of Direct Solar Radiation,” Sol. Energy, 26(3), pp. 231–236. [CrossRef]
Ong, K., 1995, “Thermal Performance of Solar Air Heaters: Mathematical Model and Solution Procedure,” Sol. Energy, 55(2), pp. 93–109. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Schematic cross-sectional view of PV/T air collectors: (a) without fins and (b) with fins

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Schematic of the studied PV/T air system with heat-transfer coefficients

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Flowchart for computer program

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Variation of PV temperature and induced mass flow rate with channel depth for unglazed system with and without fins (results of the present study and Tonui and Tripanagnostopoulos [12])

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Effect of channel depth on mass flow rate and PV temperature at different packing factors for unglazed condition

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Effect of channel depth at different packing factors for glazed and unglazed condition on the (a) thermal efficiency, (b) PV efficiency, (c) first-law efficiency, (d) second-law thermal efficiency, and (e) second-law efficiency

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Effect of (a) solar radiation, (b) ambient temperature, (c) wind speed, (d) collector length, and (e) exit diameter on the first-law efficiency and the second-law efficiency for glazed and unglazed conditions

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Effect of fin number for glazed and unglazed conditions on the first-law efficiency and the second-law efficiency

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Effect of fin height for glazed and unglazed conditions on the first-law efficiency and the second-law efficiency



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In