0
Research Papers

Dynamic Modeling of a Solar Reactor for Zinc Oxide Thermal Dissociation and Experimental Validation Using IR Thermography

[+] Author and Article Information
A. Meier

Solar Technology Laboratory,
Paul Scherrer Institute,
Villigen PSI 5232, Switzerland

A. Steinfeld

Solar Technology Laboratory,
Paul Scherrer Institute,
5232 Villigen PSI, Switzerland
Department of Mechanical and
Process Engineering,
ETH Zurich,
Zurich 8092, Switzerland
e-mail: aldo.steinfeld@ethz.ch

In this paper, the ending -ance is used to distinguish the extensive radiative properties, such as the reflectance of a glass layer, from the intensive properties, such as the reflectivity of a surface.

In the forthcoming, the directional or angular dependence of a given quantity will be indicated by a prime superscript.

The solar concentration ratio is defined as the solar radiative flux normalized to 1 kW·m−2. C is often expressed in the units of “suns.”

Ln denotes normal liters; mass flow rates calculated at 273 K and 1 bar.

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Solar Energy Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF SOLAR ENERGY ENGINEERING. Manuscript received April 29, 2013; final manuscript received August 23, 2013; published online October 24, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Yogi Goswami.

J. Sol. Energy Eng 136(1), 010901 (Oct 24, 2013) (11 pages) Paper No: SOL-13-1128; doi: 10.1115/1.4025511 History: Received April 29, 2013; Revised August 23, 2013

A dynamic numerical model of a solar cavity-type reactor for the thermal dissociation of ZnO is formulated based on a detailed radiative heat transfer analysis combining the Monte Carlo ray-tracing technique and the radiosity enclosure theory. The quartz window is treated as a semitransparent glass layer with spectrally and directionally dependent optical properties. Model validation is accomplished by comparison with experimental results obtained with a 10-kW solar reactor prototype in terms of cavity temperatures, reaction extents, and quartz window temperature distribution measured by IR thermography. The solar-to-fuel energy conversion efficiencies obtained experimentally are reported, and the various energy flows are quantified.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2014 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Steinfeld, A., 2005, “Solar Thermochemical Production of Hydrogen—A Review,” Sol. Energy, 78(5), pp. 603–615. [CrossRef]
Abanades, S., Charvin, P., Flamant, G., and Neveu, P., 2006, “Screening of Water-Splitting Thermochemical Cycles Potentially Attractive for Hydrogen Production by Concentrated Solar Energy,” Energy, 31(14), pp. 2805–2822. [CrossRef]
Smestad, G. P., and Steinfeld, A., 2012, “Review: Photochemical and Thermochemical Production of Solar Fuels From H2O and CO2 Using Metal Oxide Catalysts,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 51(37), pp. 11828–11840. [CrossRef]
Steinfeld, A., 2002, “Solar Hydrogen Production Via a Two-Step Water-Splitting Thermochemical Cycle Based on Zn/ZnO Redox Reactions,” Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 27(6), pp. 611–619. [CrossRef]
Perkins, C., and Weimer, A. W., 2004, “Likely Near-Term Solar-Thermal Water Splitting Technologies,” Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 29(15), pp. 1587–1599. [CrossRef]
Schunk, L., Haeberling, P., Wepf, S., Wuillemin, D., Meier, A., and Steinfeld, A., 2008, “A Receiver-Reactor for the Solar Thermal Dissociation of Zinc Oxide,” ASME J. Sol. Energy Eng., 130(2), p. 021009. [CrossRef]
Schunk, L., Lipinski, W., and Steinfeld, A., 2009, “Heat Transfer Model of a Solar Receiver-Reactor for the Thermal Dissociation of ZnO—Experimental Validation at 10 kW and Scale-Up to 1 MW,” Chem. Eng. J., 150(2–3), pp. 502–508. [CrossRef]
Gstoehl, D., Brambilla, A., Schunk, L., and Steinfeld, A., 2008, “A Quenching Apparatus for the Gaseous Products of the Solar Thermal Dissociation of ZnO,” J. Mater. Sci., 43(14), pp. 4729–4736. [CrossRef]
Schunk, L., Lipinski, W., and Steinfeld, A., 2009, “Ablative Heat Transfer in a Shrinking Packed-Bed of ZnO Undergoing Solar Thermal Dissociation,” AIChE J., 55(7), pp. 1659–1666. [CrossRef]
Roine, A., 1997, Outokompu HSC Chemistry for Windows, Outokompu Research, Pori, Finland.
Schunk, L., and Steinfeld, A., 2009, “Kinetics of the Thermal Dissociation of ZnO Exposed to Concentrated Solar Irradiation Using a Solar-Driven Thermogravimeter in the 1800-2100 K Range,” AIChE J., 55(6), pp. 1497–1504. [CrossRef]
Dombrovsky, L., Schunk, L., Lipinski, W., and Steinfeld, A., 2009, “An Ablation Model for the Thermal Decomposition of Porous Zinc Oxide Layer Heated by Concentrated Solar Radiation,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 52(11–12), pp. 2444–2452. [CrossRef]
Siegel, R., 1973, “Net Radiation Method for Enclosure Systems Involving Partially Transparent Walls,” NASA, Washington, DC, Technical Report No. TN D-7384.
Petrasch, J., 2002, “Thermal Modeling of Solar Chemical Reactors: Transient Behavior, Radiative Transfer,” M.S. thesis, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.
Petrasch, J., 2010, “A Free and Open Source Monte Carlo Ray Tracing Program for Concentrating Solar Energy Research,” ASME 2010 4th International Conference on Energy Sustainability, Phoenix, AZ, May 17–22, ASME Paper No. ES2010-90206. [CrossRef]
Petrasch, J., Coray, P., Meier, A., Brack, M., Haberling, P., Wuillemin, D., and Steinfeld, A., 2007, “A Novel 50 kW 11,000 Suns High-Flux Solar Simulator Based on an Array of Xenon Arc Lamps,” ASME J. Sol. Energy Eng., 129(4), pp. 405–411. [CrossRef]
Boettner, E. A., and Miedler, L. J., 1963, “Simulating the Solar Spectrum With a Filtered High-Pressure Xenon Lamp,” Appl. Opt., 2(1), pp. 105–108. [CrossRef]
Siegel, R., and Howell, J. R., 2002, Thermal Radiation Heat Transfer, Taylor & Francis, London.
Taylor, R. P., and Luck, R., 1994, “A Case Study of View-Factor Rectification Procedures for Diffuse-Gray Radiation Enclosure Computations,” Sixth Annual Thermal and Fluids Analysis Workshop, Brook Park, OH, August 15–19, NASA Conference Publication, pp. 115–131.
Modest, M. F., 2003, Radiative Heat Transfer, 2nd ed., Academic, New York.
Kitamura, R., Pilon, L., and Jonasz, M., 2007, “Optical Constants of Silica Glass From Extreme Ultraviolet to Far Infrared at Near Room Temperature,” Appl. Opt., 46(33), pp. 8118–8133. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Edwards, O. J., 1966, “Optical Transmittance of Fused Silica at Elevated Temperatures,” J. Opt. Soc. Am., 56(10), pp. 1314–1319. [CrossRef]
Brückner, R., 1970, “Properties and Structure of Vitreous Silica. I,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids, 5(2), pp. 123–175. [CrossRef]
Touloukian, Y., and Dewitt, D., 1972, Thermal Radiative Properties: Nonmetallic Solids (Thermophysical Properties of Matter, TPRC Data Series, Vol. 8), IFI/Plenum, New York.
Möller, S., 2001, “Entwicklung eines Reaktors zur Solarthermischen Herstellung von Zink aus Zinkoxid zur Energiespeicherung mit Hilfe Konzentrierte Sonnenstrahlung,” Ph.D. thesis, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.
Möller, S., and Palumbo, R., 2001, “The Development of a Solar Chemical Reactor for the Direct Thermal Dissociation of Zinc Oxide,” ASME J. Sol. Energy Eng., 123(2), pp. 83–90. [CrossRef]
Secco, E. A., 1960, “Decomposition of Zinc Oxide,” Can. J. Chem., 38(4), pp. 596–601. [CrossRef]
Weidenkaff, A., Steinfeld, A., Wokaun, A., Auer, P., Eichler, B., and Reller, A., 1998, “Direct Solar Thermal Dissociation of Zinc Oxide: Condensation and Crystallisation of Zinc in the Presence of Oxygen,” Sol. Energy, 65(1), pp. 59–69. [CrossRef]
Rath Group, “ALTRA KVS High Temperature Vacuum Formed Boards and Shapes,” http://www.rath-usa.com/pds-altra-kvs-high-temp-boards.html, retrieved October 18, 2012.
L'vov, B. V., 2001, “The Physical Approach to the Interpretation of the Kinetics and Mechanisms of Thermal Decomposition of Solids: The State of the Art,” Thermochim. Acta, 373(2), pp. 97–124. [CrossRef]
L'vov, B. V., 1997, “Interpretation of Atomization Mechanisms in Electrothermal Atomic Absorption Spectrometry by Analysis of the Absolute Rates of the Processes,” Spectrochim. Acta, Part B, 52(1), pp. 1–23. [CrossRef]
Shackelford, J. F., and Alexander, W., 2001, CRC Materials Science and Engineering Handbook, CRC, Boca Raton, FL.
MPDB 5.50, JAHM Software, 1999.
Heraeus, Quartz Glass—Thermal Properties, http://heraeus-quarzglas.com/en/quarzglas/thermalproperties/Thermal_properties.aspx, retrieved October 18, 2012.
Olorunyolemi, T., Birnboim, A., Carmel, Y., Wilson, O., Lloyd, I., Smith, S., and Campbell, R., 2002, “Thermal Conductivity of Zinc Oxide: From Green to Sintered State,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 85(5), pp. 1249–1253. [CrossRef]
Knovel, 2008, “Thermodynamic Properties of Inorganic Substances,” Knovel Critical Tables, 2nd ed., http://www.knovel.com/web/portal/browse/display?_EXT_KNOVEL_DISPLAY_bookid=761&VerticalID=0, retrieved October 20, 2012.
Archer, D. G., 1993, “Thermodynamic Properties of Synthetic Sapphire (α-Al2O3), Standard Reference Material 720 and the Effect of Temperature-Scale Differences on Thermodynamic Properties,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 22(6), pp. 1441–1453. [CrossRef]
Pankratz, L., 1982, “Thermodynamic Properties of Elements and Oxides,” U.S. Bureau of Mines Bulletin, 672.
Martienssen, W., and Warlimont, H., 2006, Springer Handbook of Condensed Matter and Materials Data, Springer, New York.
Sasaki, S., Masuda, H., and Kou, H., 2002, “Measurement of Total Hemispherical Emittance of a Nonconducting and Semitransparent Material by a Transient Calorimetric Technique,” High Temp.-High Press., 34(1), pp. 57–63. [CrossRef]
Sasaki, S., Kou, H., Masuda, H., and Kiyohashi, H., 2003, “Total Hemispherical Emissivity of Glass Sheets With Different Thicknesses Measured by a Transient Calorimetric Technique,” High Temp.-High Press., 35/36 (3), pp. 303–312. [CrossRef]
Häring, H.-W., 2008, Industrial Gases Processing, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany, Chap. 2.
Welford, W. T., and Winston, R., 1989, High Collection Nonimaging Optics, Academic, New York.
Loutzenhiser, P. G., and Steinfeld, A., 2011, “Solar Syngas Production From CO2 and H2O in a Two-Step Thermochemical Cycle Via Zn/ZnO Redox Reactions: Thermodynamic Cycle Analysis,” Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 36(19), pp. 12141–12147. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Schematic of the 10-kWth solar chemical reactor configuration

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Surface segmentation adopted for the application of the radiosity enclosure theory. The quartz window—not shown here—is segmented in ten concentric annuli of equal width.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Spectral radiant intensity of a typical Xe arc (Iλ,Xe, thin solid line) [17], and the calculated spectral hemispherical transmittance (Uλ, thick solid line) and absorptance (Aλ, dashed line) of the 3-mm-thick quartz window. The vertical lines indicate the limits of the three spectral bands adopted to approximate the window's radiative properties.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Schematic cross-section of the 10-kW solar reactor showing the measurement locations of the type-K and type-B thermocouples. The circled letters A–C designate the three Al2O3/SiO2 insulating layers used in the reactor corresponding to the commercial materials ALTRA KVS-184/400, KVS-164, and KVS-144 [29], respectively.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Numerically calculated and experimentally measured temperatures at the measurement locations indicated in Fig. 4, for experimental runs 1–6 (in the same order of appearance (a)–(f)). Plotted in the right axis is the solar radiative power incident on the window that enters through the aperture Qsolar.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Parity plot of the model numerical predictions and the experimentally measured amounts of ZnO dissociated during experimental runs 1–6

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

(a) Numerically calculated and experimentally measured [24] spectral normal emittance of a 0.84-mm-thick quartz plate at 313 K. (b) Numerically calculated (lines) and experimentally measured (markers) [40,41] total hemispherical emittance of three quartz sheets of different thicknesses: 5.09 mm (□), 2.09 mm (○), and 1.02 mm (◇).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

(a) IR thermogram of the quartz window at 110 min after the first Xe arc lamp ignition—indicated contour levels labeled in K. (b) Computed image of total directional local emittances of the quartz window. The emissive direction of each pixel is given by the vector connecting the pixel on the image to the lens of the IR camera.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Numerically calculated (dashed and dotted lines) and experimentally measured temperatures of the 3-mm-thick quartz window for annuli 1, 5, and 9. Measured data are represented by the shaded ribbons, each of them delimited by the ±2% error of the recorded IR thermograms. Plotted in the right axis is the radiative input power Qsolar.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Measured (circle markers) and modeled (lines) mean solar-to-fuel energy conversion efficiencies as a function of the mean temperature of the ZnO bed T¯ZnO–bed, for the six experimental runs listed in Table 1

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In