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Research Papers: Integrated Sustainable Equipment and Systems for Buildings

A New Modeling Approach to Forecast Building Energy Demands During Extreme Heat Events in Complex Cities

[+] Author and Article Information
Jorge E. González

Mechanical Engineering Department,
The City College of New York,
New York, NY 10031

Robert Bornstein

Meteorology Department,
San Jose State University,
San José, CA 95192

Mark Arend

NOAA-CREST,
The City College of New York,
New York, NY 10031

Alberto Martilli

Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas,
Medioambientales y Tecnológicas,
Madrid, Spain

Contributed by the Solar Energy Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF SOLAR ENERGY ENGINEERING. Manuscript received January 22, 2013; final manuscript received September 10, 2013; published online October 17, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Moncef Krarti.

J. Sol. Energy Eng 135(4), 040906 (Oct 17, 2013) (7 pages) Paper No: SOL-13-1027; doi: 10.1115/1.4025510 History: Received January 22, 2013; Revised September 10, 2013

The thermal response of a large and complex city including the energy production aspects of it are explored using urbanized atmospheric mesoscale modeling. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Mesocale model is coupled to a multilayer urban canopy model that considers thermal and mechanical effects of the urban environment including a building scale energy model to account for anthropogenic heat contributions due to indoor–outdoor temperature differences. This new urban parameterization is used to evaluate the evolution and the resulting urban heat island (UHI) formation associated to a 3-day heat wave in New York City (NYC) during the summer of 2010. High-resolution (250 m) urban canopy parameters (UCPs) from the National Urban Database were employed to initialize the multilayer urban parameterization. The precision of the numerical simulations is evaluated using a range of observations. Data from a dense network of surface weather stations, wind profilers, and Lidar measurements are compared to model outputs over Manhattan and its surroundings during the 3-days event. The thermal and drag effects of buildings represented in the multilayer urban canopy model improves simulations over urban regions giving better estimates of the 2 m surface air temperature and 10 m wind speed. An accurate representation of the nocturnal urban heat island registered over NYC in the event was obtained from the improved model. The accuracy of the simulation is further assessed against more simplified urban parameterizations models with positive results with new approach. Results are further used to quantify the energy consumption of the buildings during the heat wave, and to explore alternatives to mitigate the intensity of the UHI during the extreme event.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

BEP/BEM energy fluxes schematic

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Fig. 2

Surface temperature from NYCMetNet observations on July 6, 2010 at 1400 ET

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Fig. 3

Surface temperature time series from NYCMetNet observations during heat wave event

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Fig. 4

NBSD2 building height and building area fraction for Manhattan

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Fig. 5

National data land cover dataset (left) and corrected (right) urban land cover classification

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Fig. 6

Surface temperature simulations using urban morphology table (right) and grid (left) approaches

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Fig. 7

Surface temperature RMSE for urban morphology table and grid approaches

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Fig. 8

Dark (left) and white (right) roofs surface temperature simulations on July 6, 2010 15 ET

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Fig. 9

Dark and white roof hourly surface temperature simulations on July 6, 2010 for a location in Midtown Manhattan

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Fig. 10

Dark (left) and white (right) roofs AC energy consumption simulation on July 6, 2010 15 ET

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Fig. 11

Dark and white roof hourly AC energy consumption simulations on July 6, 2010 for a location in Midtown Manhattan

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