0
Research Papers

Thermodynamic Analyses of Single Brayton and Combined Brayton–Rankine Cycles for Distributed Solar Thermal Power Generation

[+] Author and Article Information
W. Lipiński

e-mail: lipinski@umn.edu
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Minnesota,
Minneapolis, MN 55455

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Solar Energy Division of ASME for publication in the Journal of Solar Energy Engineering. Manuscript received August 21, 2011; final manuscript received December 23, 2012; published online April 29, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Manuel Romero Alvarez.

J. Sol. Energy Eng 135(3), 031008 (Apr 29, 2013) (8 pages) Paper No: SOL-11-1179; doi: 10.1115/1.4023591 History: Received August 21, 2011; Revised December 23, 2012

This paper reports theoretical efficiencies of single Brayton and combined Brayton–Rankine thermodynamic power cycles for distributed solar thermal power generation. Thermodynamic analyses are conducted with a nominal heat input to the cycle of 150 kW and component parameters for a 50 kWe gas microturbine for selected working fluids including air, Ar, CO2, He, H2, and N2 for the Brayton cycle and for the topping cycle of the combined system. Cycle parameters including maximum fluid temperature based on solar concentration ratio, pressure loss, and compressor/turbine efficiencies are then varied to examine their effect on cycle efficiency. C6-fluoroketone, cyclohexane, n-pentane, R-141b, R-245fa, and HFE-7000 are examined as working fluids in the bottoming segment of the combined cycle. A single Brayton cycle is found to reach a peak cycle efficiency of 15.31% with carbon dioxide at design point conditions. Each Brayton cycle fluid is examined as a topping cycle fluid in the combined cycle, being paired with six potential bottoming fluids, resulting in 36 working fluid configurations. The combination of the Brayton topping cycle using carbon dioxide and the Rankine bottoming cycle using R-245fa gives the highest combined cycle efficiency of 21.06%.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2013 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Kolb, G. J., Alpert, D. J., and Lopez, C. W., 1991, “Insights From the Operation of Solar One and Their Implications for Future Central Receiver Plants,” Sol. Energy, 47(1), pp. 39–47. [CrossRef]
Charabi, Y., and Gastli, A., 2010, “GIS Assessment of Large CSP Plant in Duqum, Oman,” Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev., 14, pp. 835–841. [CrossRef]
Moustafa, S., Hoefler, W., El-Mansy, H., Kamal, A., and Jarrar, D., 1984, “Design Specifications and Application of a 100 kWe (700 kWth) Cogeneration Solar Power Plant,” Sol. Energy, 32(2), pp. 263–269. [CrossRef]
Romero, M., Marcos, M. J., Tellez, F. M., Blanco, M., Fernandez, V., Baonza, F., and Berger, S., 1999, “Distributed Power From Solar Tower Systems: A MIUS Approach,” Sol. Energy, 67(4–6), pp. 249–264. [CrossRef]
Price, H., Lupfert, E., Kearney, D., Zarza, D., Cohen, G., Gee, R., and Mahoney, R., 2002, “Advances in Parabolic Trough Solar Power Technology,” J. Sol. Energy Eng., 124, pp. 109–125. [CrossRef]
Stine, W., and Geyer, M., 2001, “Power From the Sun,” http://www.powerfromthesun.com/book.html
Datta, A., Ganguly, R., and Sarkar, L., 2010, “Energy and Exergy Analyses of an Externally Fired Gas Turbine (EFGT) Cycle Integrated With Biomass Gasifier for Distributed Power Generation,” Energy, 35, pp. 341–350. [CrossRef]
Vera, D., Jurado, F., de Mena, B., and Schories, G., 2011, “Comparison Between Externally Fired Gas Turbine and Gasifier-Gas Turbine System for the Olive Oil Industry,” Energy, 36(12), pp. 6720–6730. [CrossRef]
Galanti, L., and Massargo, A. F., 2011, “Micro Gas Turbine Thermodynamic and Economic Analysis up to 500 kWe Size,” Appl. Energy, 88, pp. 4795–4802. [CrossRef]
Wee, J. H., 2011, “Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell and Gas Turbine Hybrid Systems as Distributed Energy Resources,” Appl. Energy, 88, pp. 4252–4263. [CrossRef]
Craig, J. D., and Purvis, C. R., 1999, “A Small Scale Biomass Fueled Gas Turbine Engine,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 121(1), pp. 64–67. [CrossRef]
Angelino, G., Invernizzi, C., and Molteni, G., 1998, “The Potential Role of Organic Bottoming Rankine Cycles in Steam Power Stations,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. Part A, 213(2), pp. 75–81. [CrossRef]
Liu, B. T., Chien, K. H., and Wang, C. C., 2004, “Effect of Working Fluids on Organic Rankine Cycle for Waste Heat Recovery,” Energy, 29, pp. 1207–1217. [CrossRef]
Chacartegui, R., Sanchez, D., Jimenez–Espadafor, F., Munoz, A., and Sanchez, T., 2008, “Analysis of Intermediate Temperature Combined Cycles With a Carbon Dioxide Topping Cycle,” ASME Turbo Expo 2008: Power for Land, Sea, and Air, Berlin, June 9–13, ASME Paper No. GT2008-51053. [CrossRef]
Invernizzi, C., Iora, P., and Silva, P., 2007, “Bottoming Micro-Rankine Cycles for Micro-Gas Turbines,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 27(1), pp. 100–110. [CrossRef]
Kuo, C. R., Hsu, S. W., Chang, K. H., and Wang, C. C., 2011, “Analysis of a 50 kW Organic Rankine Cycle System,” Energy, 36(10), pp. 5877–5885. [CrossRef]
Lemort, V., Quoilin, S., Cuevas, C., and Lebrun, J., 2009, “Testing and Modeling a Scroll Expander Integrated Into an Organic Rankine Cycle,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 29(14–15), pp. 3094–3102. [CrossRef]
Quoilin, S., Lemort, V., and Lebrun, J., 2010, “Experimental Study and Modeling of an Organic Rankine Cycle Using Scroll Expander,” Appl. Energy, 87(4), pp. 1260–1268. [CrossRef]
Pye, J., Morrison, G., and Behnia, M., 2006, “Pressure Drops for Direct Steam Generation in In-Line Focus Solar Thermal Systems,” ANZSES 2006, Canberra, Australia, September 13–15.
Span, R., and Wagner, W., 1996, “A New Equation of State for Carbon Dioxide Covering the Fluid Region From the Triple-Point Temperature to 1100 K at Pressures up to 800 MPa,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 25(6), pp. 1509–1596. [CrossRef]
Klein, S. A., 2012, Engineering Equation Solver (EES) for Microsoft Windows Operating System: Academic Professional Version, F-Chart Software, Madison, WI.
Tegeler, C., Span, R., and Wagner, W., 1999, “Eine neue Fundamental-gleichung für das fluide Zustandsgebiet von Argon für Temperaturen von der Schmelzlinie bis 700 K und Drücke bis 1000 MPa” (Translation: “A New Equation of State for Argon Covering the Fluid Region for Temperatures From the Melting Line to 700 K at Pressures Up to 1000 MPa”), Fortschritt-Berichte VDI, Reihe 3: Verfahrenstechnik Nr. 480.
Lemmon, E. W., Jacobsen, R. T., Penoncello, S. G., and Friend, D., 2000, “Thermodynamic Properties of Air and Mixtures of Nitrogen, Argon, and Oxygen From 60 to 2000 K at Pressures to 2000 MPa,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 29(3), pp. 331–385. [CrossRef]
Span, R., Lemmon, E. W., Jacobsen, R. T., Wagner, W., and Yokozeki, A., 2000, “A Reference Equation of State for the Thermodynamic Properties of Nitrogen From 63.151 to 1000 K and Pressures to 2200 MPa,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 29(6), pp. 1361–1434. [CrossRef]
McCarty, R. D., and Arp, V. D., 1990, “A New Wide Range Equation of State for Helium,” Adv. Cryog. Eng., 35, pp. 1465–1475.
Leachman, J. W., Jacobsen, R. T., Penoncello, S. G., and Lemmon, E. W., 2009, “Fundamental Equations of State for Parahydrogen, Normal Hydrogen, and Orthohydrogen,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 38, p. 721. [CrossRef]
Penoncello, S. G., Jacobsen, R. T., and Goodwin, A. R. H., 1995, “A Thermodynamic Property Formulation for Cyclohexane,” Int. J. Thermophys., 16(2), pp. 519–529. [CrossRef]
Jacobsen, R. T., Penoncello, S. G., and Lemmon, E. W., 1997, Thermodynamic Properties of Cryogenic Fluids, Plenum Press, New York.
Martin, J. J., and Hou, Y. C., 1955, “Development of an Equation of State for Gases,” AIChE J., 1(142), pp. 142–151. [CrossRef]
Lemmon, E. W., and Span, R., 2006, “Short Fundamental Equations of State for 20 Industrial Fluids,” J. Chem. Eng. Data, 51(3), pp. 785–850. [CrossRef]
Beerbaum, S., and Weinrebe, G., 2000, “Solar Thermal Power Generation in IndiaA Techno-Economic Analysis,” Renewable Energy, 21, pp. 153–174. [CrossRef]
Lovegrove, K., and Luzzi, A., 2002, “Solar Thermal Power Systems,” Encyclopedia of Physical Science and Technology, 3rd ed., Vol. 15, R. A.Meyers, ed., Academic Press, San Diego, CA, pp. 223–235.
Steinfeld, A., and Palumbo, R., 2001, “Solar Thermochemical Process Technology,” Encyclopedia of Physical Science & Technology, 3rd ed., Vol. 15, R. A.Meyers, ed., Academic Press, New York, pp. 237–256.
Kennedy, C. E., 2002, “Review of Mid- to High-Temperature Solar Selective Absorber Materials,” NREL/TP-520-31267.
Montes, M. J., Abanades, A., and Martinez–Val, J. M., 2009, “Performance of a Direct Steam Generation Solar Thermal Power Plant for Electricity Production as a Function of the Solar Multiple,” Sol. Energy, 83, pp. 679–689. [CrossRef]
Duffie, J. A., and Beckman, W. A., 2006, Solar Engineering of Thermal Processes, 3rd ed., John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, NJ.
Bathie, W. W., 1996, Fundamentals of Gas Turbines, 2nd ed., John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, NJ.
Angelino, G., and Invernizzi, C., 2001, “Real Gas Brayton Cycles for Organic Working Fluids,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part A, 215, pp. 27–38. [CrossRef]
Wagner, W., and Pruss, A., 2002, “The IAPWS Formulation 1995 for the Thermodynamic Properties of Ordinary Water Substance for General and Scientific Use,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 31, pp. 387–535. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Component schematic of the single Brayton cycle indicating the evaluated thermodynamic states

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Example temperature-entropy plane diagram for single Brayton cycle indicating the evaluated thermodynamic states

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Component schematic of the combined Brayton–Rankine cycle indicating the evaluated thermodynamic states

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Efficiency of a receiver-Carnot heat engine system as a function of receiver temperature for C = 50, 70, and 100

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Optimal receiver temperature versus solar concentration ratio

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Brayton cycle efficiency versus cycle pressure ratio

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Brayton cycle volumetric network versus cycle pressure ratio

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Effect of turbine inlet temperature on Brayton cycle efficiency

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Effect of compressor isentropic efficiency on Brayton cycle efficiency

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Effect of turbine isentropic efficiency on Brayton cycle efficiency

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Effect of pressure loss in heating stage on Brayton cycle efficiency. Cooling stage pressure loss is held constant.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Comparison of steam Rankine and single Brayton cycle efficiency plotted as a function of the cycle pressure ratio. Brayton cycle curves are identical to those of Fig. 7.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Cycle efficiency for each configuration of fluids in the combined cycle, grouped by topping cycle fluid

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Net cycle power output for each configuration of fluids in the combined cycle, grouped by topping cycle fluid

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In