0
Research Papers

Gravity-Assisted Heat Pipe With Strong Marangoni Fluid for Waste Heat Management of Single and Dual-Junction Solar Cells

[+] Author and Article Information
Van P. Carey

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of California, Berkeley,
6123 Etcheverry Hall, Mailstop 5117,
University of California at Berkeley,
Berkeley, CA 94720-1740

Contributed by the Solar Energy Division of ASME for publication in the Journal of Solar Energy Engineering. Manuscript received January 12, 2012; final manuscript received May 21, 2012; published online January 25, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Santiago Silvestre.

J. Sol. Energy Eng 135(2), 021015 (Jan 25, 2013) (8 pages) Paper No: SOL-12-1011; doi: 10.1115/1.4007937 History: Received January 12, 2012; Revised May 21, 2012

This study investigates the cooling of single and multijunction solar cells with an inclined, gravity-assisted heat pipe, containing a 0.05 M 2-propanol/water mixture that exhibits strong concentration Marangoni effects. Heat pipe solar collector system thermal behavior was investigated theoretically and semi-empirically through experimentation of varying input heat loads from attached strip-heaters to simulate waste heat generation of single-junction monocrystalline silicon (Si), and dual-junction GaInP/GaAs photovoltaic (PV) solar cells. Several liquid charge ratios were investigated to determine an optimal working fluid volume that reduces the evaporator superheat while enhancing the vaporization transport heat flux. Results showed that a 45% liquid charge, with a critical heat flux of 114.8 W/cm2, was capable of achieving the lowest superheat levels, with a system inclination of 37 deg. Solar cell semiconductor theory was used to evaluate the effects of increasing temperature and solar concentration on cell performance. Results showed that a combined PV/heat pipe system had a 1.7% higher electrical efficiency, with a concentration ratio 132 suns higher than the stand-alone system. The dual-junction system also exhibited enhanced performance at elevated system temperatures with a 2.1% greater electrical efficiency, at an operational concentration level 560 suns higher than a stand-alone system.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2013 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Bellutti, P., Collini, A., Lorenza, F., Ferrario, F., Ficorella, M., and Patenoster, G., 2010, “A Recent Experiment in cSiPV,” 3rd International Workshop on CPV, Bremerhaven, Germany, October 20–22.
Kalogirou, S., 2004, “Solar Thermal Collectors and Applications,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci., 30, pp. 231–295. [CrossRef]
Mbewe, D. J., Card, H. C., and Card, D. C., 1985, “A Model of Silicon Solar Cells for Concentrator Photovoltaic and Photovoltaic/Thermal System Design,” Sol. Energy, 35, pp. 247–258. [CrossRef]
Wang, Z., Zhang, H., and Zhang, H., 2011, “The Simulation of Heat Pipe Evaporator in Concentration Solar Cell,” Appl. Mech. Mat., 44-47, pp. 1207–1212. [CrossRef]
Meneses-Rodríguez, D., Horley, P. P., González-Hernádez, J., Vorobiev, Y. V., and Gorley, P. N., 2004, “Photovoltaic Solar Cells Performance at Elevated Temperatures,” Sol. Energy, 78, pp. 243–250. [CrossRef]
Sarmasti Emami, M. R., Noie, S. H., and Khoshnoodi, M., 2008, “Effect of Aspect Ratio and Filling Ratio on Thermal Performance of an Inclined Two-Phase Closed Thermosyphon,” Iranian J. of Sci. Tech., Trans. B, Engr.32(B1), pp. 39–51.
Zondag, H. A., 2008, “Flat-Plate PV-Thermal Collectors and Systems: A Review,” Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev., 12, pp. 891–959. [CrossRef]
Facão, J., and Oliveira, A. C., 2005, “The Effect of Condenser Heat Transfer on the Energy Performance of a Plate Heat Pipe Solar Collector,” Int. J. Energy Res., 29, pp. 903–912. [CrossRef]
Azad, E., 2008, “Theoretical and Experimental Investigation of Heat Pipe Solar Collector,” Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci., 32, pp. 1666–1672. [CrossRef]
Ezekwe, C. I., 1990, “Thermal Performance of Heat Pipe Solar Energy Systems,” Sol. Wind Technol., 7(4), pp. 349–354. [CrossRef]
Joudi, K. A., and Witwit, A. M., 2000, “Improvements of Gravity Assisted Wickless Heat Pipes,” Energy Convers. Manage., 41, pp. 2041–2061. [CrossRef]
Armijo, K. M., and Carey, V. P., 2011, “An Experimental Study of Heat Pipe Performance Using Binary Mixture Fluids That Exhibit Strong Concentration Marangoni Effects,” ASME J. Therm. Sci. Eng. Appl., 3(3), p. 031003. [CrossRef]
Strel’tsov, A. I., 1975, “Theoretical and Experimental Investigation of Optimum Filling for Heat Pipes,” Heat Transfer-Sov. Res., 7(1), pp. 23–27.
Duncan, A. B., and Peterson, G. P., 1995, “Charge Optimization for a Triangular-Shaped Etched Micro Heat Pipe,” Int. J. Thermophys., 9(2), pp. 365–368.
Faghri, A., 1995, Heat Pipe Science and Technology, Taylor & Francis Group, Boca Raton, FL.
Kiatsiriroat, T., Nuntaphan, A., and Tiansuwan, J., 2000, “Thermal Performance Enhancement of Thermosyphon Heat Pipe With Binary Working Fluids,” Exp. Heat Transfer, 13, pp. 137–152. [CrossRef]
Armijo, K. M., and Carey, V. P., 2010, “Prediction of Binary Mixture Boiling Heat Transfer in Systems With Strong Marangoni Effects,” Fron. Heat Mass Transfer, 1, pp. 1–6. [CrossRef]
Cao, Y., Gao, M., Beam, J. E., and Donovan, B., 1997, “Experiments and Analyses of Flat Miniature Heat Pipes,” J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer, 22(2), pp. 58–164. [CrossRef]
Han, K.-I., Yee, S.-S., Park, S. H., Lee, S. H., and Cho, D.-H., 2002, “A Study on the Improvement of Heat Transfer Performance in Low Temperature Closed Thermosyphon,” KSME Int. J., 16 (9), pp. 1102–1111.
Cheng, C. L., Sanchez Jimenez, C. S., and Lee, M. C., 2009, “Research of BIPV Optimal Tilted Angle, Use of Latitude Concept for South Oriented Plans,” J. Renewable Sustainable Energy, 34, pp. 1644–1650. [CrossRef]
Rohsenow, W. M., and Hartnett, J. P., 1973, Handbook of Heat Transfer, McGraw-Hill, New York.
Xi, H., Luo, L., and Fraisse, G., 2007, “Development and Applications of Solar-Based Thermoelectric Technologies,” Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev., 11, pp. 923–936. [CrossRef]
Chien, C. C., Kung, C. K., Chang, C. C., Lee, W. S., Jwo, C. S., and Chen, S. L., 2011, “Theoretical and Experimental Investigations of a Two-Phase Thermosyphon Solar Water Heater,” Energy, 36, pp. 415–423. [CrossRef]
Markvart, T., 2000, Solar Electricity, 2nd ed., John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chinchester, UK.
Xiao, W. B., He, X. D., Liu, J. T., and Gao, Y. Q., 2011, “Experimental Investigation on Characteristics of Low-Concentrating Solar Cells,” Mod. Phys. Lett. B, 25(9), pp. 679–684. [CrossRef]
Wanlass, M. W., Coutts, T. J., Ward, J. S., Emery, K. A., Gessert, T. A., and Osterwald, C. R., 1991, “Advanced High-Efficiency Concentrator Tandem Solar Cells,” The 22nd IEEE Photovoltaics Specialist Conference, Las Vegas, NV, October 7–11, Vol. 1, pp. 35–41. [CrossRef]
Ferguson, L. G., and Fraas, L. M., 1995, “Theoretical Study of GaSb PV Cell Efficiency as a Function of Temperature,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells, 39, pp. 11–18. [CrossRef]
Fan, J. C., 1986, “Theoretical Temperature Dependence of Solar Cell Parameters,” Sol. Cells, 17, pp. 309–315. [CrossRef]
Liu, L., Chen, N., Bai, Y., Cui, M., Zhang, H., Gao, F., Gao, F., Yin, Z., and Zhang, X., 2009, “Quantum Efficiency and Temperature Coefficients of GaInP/GaAs Dual-Junction Solar Cell,” Sci. China, Ser. E: Technol. Sci., 52(5), pp. 1176–1180. [CrossRef]
Khemthong, S., and Iles, P. A., 1982, “High Efficiency Silicon Concentrator Solar Cells,” Sol. Cells, 6, pp. 59–77. [CrossRef]
Nasby, R. D., Garner, C. M., Weaver, H. T., Sexton, F. W., and Rodriguez, J. L., 1981, “Characterization of p+nn+ Silicon Concentrator Solar Cells,” Rec. 15th Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, Orlando, FL, May 12–15, Vol. 81.
Lee, H., 2010, Thermal Design, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
Skoplaki, E., Boudouvis, A. G., and Palyvos, J. A., 2008, “A Simple Correlation for the Operating Temperature of Photovoltaic Modules of Arbitrary Mounting,” Sol Energy Mater. Sol. Cells, 92, pp. 1393–1402. [CrossRef]
Williams, A., 1986, The Handbook of Photovoltaic Application, The Fairmont Press Inc., Atlanta, GA.
Fahrenbruch, A. L., and Bube, R., 1983, Fundamentals of Solar Cells, Academic, New York.
Hovestreudt, J., 1963, “The Influence of the Surface Tension Difference on the Boiling of Mixtures,” Chem. Eng. Sci., 18, pp. 631–639. [CrossRef]
Coventry, J. S., 2005, “Performance of a Concentrating Photovoltaic/Thermal Solar Collector,” Sol. Energy, 78, pp. 211–222. [CrossRef]
Skoplaki, E., and Palyvos, J. A., 2008, “On the Dependence of Photovoltaic Module Electrical Performance: A Review of Efficiency/Power Correlations,” Sol. Energy, 83, pp. 614–624. [CrossRef]
Nelson, J., 2003, The Physics of Solar Cells, Imperial College Press, London, pp. 266–269.
Luque, A., 1989, Solar Cells and Optics for Photovoltaic Concentration, Adam Hilger, Bristol, UK.
Abdel Aziz, M. M., and Aboul-Zahab, E. M., 1988, “Optimization of Solar Cell Output Power by Heat Pipe Cooling,” Proceedings of the 1st Cairo International Symposium on Renewable Energy Sources, Cairo, Egypt, June 13–16, Vol. 2, pp. 197–202.
Checknane, A., Benyoucef, B., and Chaker, A., 2006, “Performance of Concentrator Solar Cells With Passive Cooling,” Semicond. Sci. Technol., 21, pp. 144–147. [CrossRef]
Zondag, H. A., de Vries, D. W., van Helden, W. G. J., van Zolingen, R. J. C., and van Steenhoven, A. A., 2003, “The Yield of Different Combined PV-Thermal Collector Designs,” Sol. Energy, 74, pp. 253–269. [CrossRef]
da Silva, R. M., and Fernandes, J. L. M., 2010, “Hybrid Photovoltaic/Thermal (PV/T) Solar Systems Simulation With Simulink/Matlab,” Sol. Energy, 84, pp. 1985–1996. [CrossRef]
Bergene, T., and Bjerke, B., 1993, “Thermodynamic Considerations Concerning the Efficiency and Possible Utilization of Combined Quantum/Thermal Solar Energy Converters,” Proceedings of ISES Solar World Congress, Budapest, August 23–27, Vol. 4, pp. 25–30.
Bergene, T., and Lovik, O., 1995, “Model Calculations on a Flat-Plate Solar Heat Collector With Integrated Solar Cells,” Sol. Energy, 55(6), pp. 453–462. [CrossRef]
Garg, H. P., Bharagaba, A. K., and Agarwal, R. K., 1990, “Experimental and Theoretical Studies on a Photovoltaic/Thermal Hybrid Solar Collector Water Heater,” Proceedings of ISES Solar World Congress, Vol. 1, pp. 701–705.
Hayakashi, B., Mizusaki, K., Satoh, T., and Hatanaka, T., 1990, “Research and Development of Photovoltaic/Thermal Hybrid Solar Power Generation System,” Proceedings of ISES Solar World Congress, Vol. 1, pp. 302–306.
Lalovic, B., 1987, “A Hybrid Amorphous Silicon Photovoltaic and Thermal Solar Collector,” Sol. Cells, 19, pp. 131–138. [CrossRef]
Huang, B. J., Lin, T. H., Hung, W. C., and Sun, F. S., 2000, “Performance Evaluation of Solar Photovoltaic/Thermal Systems,” Sol. Energy, 70(5), pp. 443–448. [CrossRef]
Neville, R. C., Solar Energy Conversion: The Solar Cell, 2nd ed., Elsevier Science B.V, New York.
Coventry, J. S., Franklin, E., and Blakers, A., 2002, “Thermal and Electrical Performance a Concentrating PV/Thermal Collector: Results From the ANU Collector,” ANZSES Conference, Newcastle, Australia, November 27–29.
Breitenstein, O., Bauer, J., and Rakotoniaina, J. P., 2007, “Material-Induced Shunts in Multicrystalline Silicon Solar Cells,” Semiconductors, 41(4), pp. 440–443. [CrossRef]
Farahat, M. A., 2005, “Improvement the Thermal Electric Performance of a Photovoltaic Cells by Cooling and Concentration Techniques,” 39th University Power Engineering Conference, Bristol, UK, September, Vol. 1, pp. 623–628.
Friedman, D. J., 1996, “Modeling of Tandem Cell Temperature Coefficients,” 25th IEEE Photovolatic Specialist Conference, Washington DC, May 13–17. [CrossRef]
King, D. L., 1997, “Photovoltaic Module and Array Performance Characterization Methods for all System Operating Conditions,” Proceedings of NREL/SNL Photovoltaic Programme Review Meeting, Lakewood, CO, November 18–22.
Nishioka, K., Tatamoto, T., Agui, T., Kaneiwa, M., Uraoka, Y., and Fuyuki, T., 2005, “Annual Output Estimation of Concentrator Photovoltaic Systems Using High-Efficiency INGaP/InGaAs/Ge Triple-Junction Solar Cells Based on Experimental Solar Cell’s Characteristics and Field-Test Meteorological Data,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells, 90, pp. 57–67. [CrossRef]
Riffat, S. B., and Guoquan, Q., 2004, “Comparative Investigation of Thermoelectric Air-Conditioners Versus Vapour Compression and Adsorption Air-Conditioners,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 24, pp. 1979–1993. [CrossRef]
Bansal, P. K., and Martin, A., 2000, “Comparative Study of Vapour Compression, Thermoelectric and Absorption Refrigerators,” Int J Energy Res., 24, pp. 93–107. [CrossRef]
Ohmori, M., 1996, “Over 30% Efficient InGaP/GaAs Tandem Solar Cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett., 70(3), pp. 381–383. [CrossRef]
Antón, I., Sala, G., and Pachón, D., 2001, “Correction of the Voc Versus Temperature Dependence Under Non-Uniform Concentrated Illumination,” 17th International Photovoltaic Science and Engineering Conference, Munich, Germany, October 22–26.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

(a) Experimental apparatus with embedded heat pipe (b) schematic diagram for the experimental setup

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Heat pipe multiphase transport schematic, comprised of heat input at the evaporator section and heat extraction at the condenser

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Heat pipe evaporator wall superheat versus incident solar concentration for a 37 deg system orientation, 0.05 M 2-propanol/water mixture, 30%,40%, 45%, 50%, and 70% liquid charge ratios and with a ηcell=14% mono-Si solar cell

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Mono-Si single-junction solar cell electrical efficiency as a function of temperature and solar concentration, for a gravity-assisted heat pipe with a 37 deg orientation, 0.05 M 2-propanol/water mixture and 45% liquid charge ratio

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Projected single p-n junction monocrystalline silicon solar cell electrical properties versus solar concentration

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Empirical electrical efficiency projections, for a single p-n junction mono-Si solar cell, with and without a heat pipe containing a 0.05 M 2-propanol/water working fluid with a 45% liquid charge

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Projected multijunction InGaP/GaAs junction solar cell electrical properties versus solar concentration with a gravity-assisted heat pipe in a 37 deg orientation and a 0.05 M 2-propanol/water working fluid mixture at 45% liquid charge

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Empirical electrical efficiency projections, for a tandem multijunction GaAs/GaInP solar cell, with and without a heat pipe containing a 0.05 M 2-propanol/water working fluid with a 45% liquid charge

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In