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Research Papers

Experimental and Numerical Study of Mixing in a Horizontal Hot-Water Storage Tank

[+] Author and Article Information
A. Aviv, S. Morad, Y. Ratzon, G. Ziskind, R. Letan

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Heat Transfer Laboratory, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105, Israel

J. Sol. Energy Eng 131(3), 031004 (Jun 10, 2009) (6 pages) doi:10.1115/1.3142801 History: Received June 04, 2008; Revised July 31, 2008; Published June 10, 2009

Thermal mixing and stratification are explored experimentally in a horizontal cylindrical tank, which simulates a storage of water heated by a solar collector. The tank is 70 cm long and 24 cm in diameter. The study is conducted in a transient mode, namely, the tank is filled with hot water, which in the course of operation is replaced by the tap water in a stratified way or by mixing. The flow rates of 2 l/min, 3 l/min, 5 l/min, and 7 l/min are explored. Temperature of hot water is usually about 55°C, while the tap water is about 20°C. In the experiments, both flow visualization and temperature measurements are used. The effects of port location and deflector installation are examined. The experimental results are presented in a dimensionless form, as the normalized outlet temperature versus dimensionless time. Three-dimensional transient numerical simulations, done using the FLUENT 6 software, provide an additional insight in the process of mixing inside the tank.

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Copyright © 2009 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figure 1

Experimental setup. The insert shows the feeding pipe with a deflector and the exit port on the same side.

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Figure 2

Summary of the experimental results, in terms of the normalized temperature versus dimensionless time, for different entrance/exit configurations: (a) entrance and exit on the opposite sides, (b) entrance and exit on the same side, and (c) entrance, with a deflector, and exit on the same side.

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Figure 3

Visualization for the flowrate of 2 l/min. The entrance and exit are on the opposite sides.

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Figure 4

Simulation for the flowrate of 2 l/min. The entrance and exit are on the opposite sides.

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Figure 5

Comparison of the numerical and experimental results for the flowrate of 3 l/min. The entrance and exit are on the opposite sides.

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Figure 6

Comparison of the numerical and experimental results for the flowrate of 7 l/min. The entrance and exit are on the same side.

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Figure 7

Visualization for the flowrate of 7 l/min. The entrance and exit are on the same side.

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Figure 8

Simulated temperature fields for the flowrate of 7 l/min. The entrance and exit are on the same side.

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Figure 9

Visualization for the flowrate of 7 l/min. The entrance and exit are on the same side. A deflector is used at the entrance.

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Figure 10

Simulated temperature fields for the flowrate of 7 l/min. The entrance and exit are on the same side. A deflector is used at the entrance.

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Figure 11

Comparison of the numerical and experimental results for the flowrate of 7 l/min. The entrance and exit are on the same side. A deflector is used at the entrance.

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