An innovative solar cooling and heating system has been designed, installed, tested, and modeled at Carnegie Mellon University to assess the technical and economic feasibility of high temperature solar cooling and heating system. This system primarily consists of parabolic trough solar collectors (PTSC) and a double effect absorption chiller. A comprehensive model for the tubular receiver of the PTSC has been developed to improve the PTSC design and overall system performance. The model has been verified by the experimental data from the tests on the PTSC in this system. The experimental data and theoretical analysis demonstrated that the properties of the glass envelope of PTSC significantly impacted the PTSC’s performance. The model calculations indicated that the vacuum in the annular space between the glass tube and absorber pipe of the PTSC does not markedly improve its efficiency. In addition, the system performance of the high temperature solar cooling and heating system has been presented and evaluated by using experimental data. Based on these model calculations, the performance of the PTSC installed has been projected and measures to improve the PTSC design have been recommended.