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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Parametric Models for Estimating Wind Turbine Fatigue Loads for Design

[+] Author and Article Information
Lance Manuel

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712e-mail: lmanuel@mail.utexas.edu

Paul S. Veers

Sandia National Laboratories, Wind Energy Technology Department, Albuquerque, NM 87185-0708

Steven R. Winterstein

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-4020

J. Sol. Energy Eng 123(4), 346-355 (Jun 01, 2001) (10 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1409555 History: Received February 01, 2001; Revised June 01, 2001
Copyright © 2001 by ASME
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References

Fitzwater, L. M., and Winterstein, S. R., 2001, “Predicting Design Wind Turbine Loads from Limited Data: Comparing Random Process and Random Peak Models,” A Collection of the 2001 ASME Wind Energy Symp. Technical Papers Presented at the 39th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, Reno NV, AIAA-2001-0046, January 2001.
McCoy, T. J., Malcolm, D. J., and Griffin, D. A., 1999, “An Approach to the Development of Turbine Loads in Accordance with IEC 1400-1 and ISO 2394,” A Collection of the 1999 ASME Wind Energy Symp. Technical Papers Presented at the 37th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, Reno NV, AIAA-99-0020, pp. 1–9, January 1999.
Ronold,  K. O., Wedel-Heinen,  J., and Christensen,  C. J., 1999, “Reliability-based fatigue design of wind-turbine rotor blades,” Eng. Struct., 21, pp. 1101–1114.
Veers,  P. S., and Winterstein,  S. R., 1998, “Application of Measured Loads to Wind Turbine Fatigue and Reliability Analysis,” ASME J. Sol. Energy Eng., 120, No. 4, pp. 233–239.
IEC/TC88, 61400-1, 1998, Wind Turbine Generator Systems–Part 1: Safety Requirements, Int. Electrotechnical Commission, Geneva, Switzerland.
IEC/TC88, Draft IEC 61400-13 TS, 1999, Edition 1: Wind turbine generator systems–Part 13: Measurement of Mechanical Loads, 88/120/CDV, Int. Electrotechnical Commission, Geneva, Switzerland.
Butterfield, S., Holley, B., Madsen, P. H., and Stork, C., 1997, Report on 88/69/CD–Wind Turbine Generator Systems-Part 1: Safety Requirements, 2 Edition, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO.
MOUNTURB, 1996, Load and Power Measurement Program on Wind Turbines Operating in Complex Mountainous Regions, Volumes. I-III, P. Chaviaropoulos (ed.), A. N. Fragoulis (Coord), CRES, RISO, ECN, NTUA-FS, CRES, Pikermi, Greece.
Manuel, L., Kashef, T., and Winterstein, S. R., 1999, Moment-Based Probability Modeling and Extreme Response Estimation the Fits Routine, Version 1.2, SAND99-2985, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque NM.
Lange, C. H., 1996, Probabilistic Fatigue Methodology and Wind Turbine Reliability, SAND96-1246, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque NM.
Lange, C. H., and Winterstein, S. R., 1996, “Fatigue Design of Wind Turbine Blades: Load and Resistance Factors from Limited Data,” Proc. of Energy Week Conference & Exhibition Incorporating ETCE, Book VIII, Wind Energy, Houston TX, pp. 93–101.
Nelson, D. V., and Fuchs, H. O., 1997, “Predictions of Cumulative Fatigue Damage using Condensed Load Histories,” Fatigue under Complex Loading: Analysis and Experiments, Advances in Engineering, Vol. 6, R. M. Wetzel (ed.), SAE, Warrendale PA, pp. 163–187.
Haver, S., 2001, “Application of Stochastic Methods in Structural Design–The Offshore Experience,” A collection of the 2001 ASME Wind Energy Symp., at the AIAA Aerospace Sciences Mtg, Reno NV, AIAA-2001-0043, January 2001.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Wind speed and turbulence intensity values for the 101 10-minute data samples
Grahic Jump Location
(a) Histogram of flap-wise bending moment ranges for 101 10-minute data sets; (b) cumulative counts of flap-wise bending moment ranges for 101 10-minute data sets; (c) Histogram of edge-wise bending moment ranges for 101 10-minute data sets; and (d) Cumulative counts of edge-wise bending moments ranges for 101 10-minute data sets
Grahic Jump Location
Quadratic Weibull model fits to data on flap-bending moment ranges (V=17.0 m/s,I=0.18): (a) Weibull scale plot; (b) Weibull scale plot (truncation at 11.5 kN-m); (c) Exceedance plot format (truncation at 11.5 kN-m)
Grahic Jump Location
Quadratic Weibull model fits to data on edge-bending moment ranges (V=17.0 m/s,I=0.18): (a) Weibull scale plot; (b) Weibull scale plot (truncation at 32.0 kN-m); and (c) Exceedance plot format (truncation at 32.0 kN-m)
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Effect on damage estimation of shift in blade bending moment range data: (a) Flap-wise bending; and (b) Edge-wise bending
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Regression results for flap-wise bending moment range: (a) Mean; (b) Coefficient of variation (COV); and (c) Coefficient of skewness
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Regression results of edge-wise bending moment range: (a) Mean; (b) Coefficient of variation (COV); and (c) Coefficient of skewness
Grahic Jump Location
Distribution of bending moment ranges conditional on wind speed and turbulence intensity: (a) Flap-wise bending; and (b) Edge-wise bending
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Long-term distribution of edge-wise bending moment ranges (Rayleigh distributed wind speed with mean=10 m/s): (a) Flap-wise bending; and (b) Edge-wise bending
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Lavrio site turbulence intensity as a function of wind speed, regression fits, and IEC Category A and B definitions
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95% confidence levels on the exceedance probability of fatigue loads for the Lavrio site with turbulence set to the average value for each wind speed: (a) Flap-wise bending; and (b) Edge-wise bending

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