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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Site-Specific Design Optimization of 1.5–2.0 MW Wind Turbines

[+] Author and Article Information
Peter Fuglsang, Kenneth Thomsen

Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics Department Risø National Laboratory P.O. Box 49, DK-4000 Roskilde, Denmark

J. Sol. Energy Eng 123(4), 296-303 (Feb 01, 2001) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1404433 History: Received March 01, 1998; Revised February 01, 2001
Copyright © 2001 by ASME
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References

Fuglsang, P., and Madsen, H. A., 1995, “Optimization of Stall Regulated Rotors,” Proc. ASME Wind Energy—1995, Houston, Texas, SED-Vol 16, pp. 151–158.
Selig,  M. S., and Coverstone-Carroll,  V. L., 1996, “Applications of a Genetic Algorithm to Wind Turbine Design,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 118, pp. 22–28.
Fuglsang, P., and Madsen, H. A., 1996, “Numerical Optimization of Wind Turbine Rotors,” Proc. European Union Wind Energy Conf., Göteborg, Sweden, 20–24 May 1996, pp. 679–682.
Hendriks, B., Schepers, J. G., van Engelen, T. G., Stem, A. J., and Boerstra, G. K., 1996, “Aeroelastically Optimised Cost Efficient Wind Turbine, A Case Study,” Proc. European Union Wind Energy Conf., Göteborg, Sweden, 20–24 May 1996, pp. 116–119
Thomsen,  K., 1996, “Loads for Wind Turbines in Complex Terrain,” Wind Eng., 20, No. 4, pp. 233–240.
Frandsen,  S., and Thomsen,  K., 1997, “Change in Fatigue and Extreme Loading when moving Wind Farms Offshore,” Wind Eng., 21, No. 3, pp. 197–214.
O̸ye, S., 1996, “FLEX4 Simulation of Wind Turbine Dynamics,” Proc. Int. Energy Agency, Annex XI, 28th Meeting of Experts, Lyngby, Denmark, 11–12 April, pp. 71–77.
Veers, P. S., 1988, “Three-Dimensional Wind Simulation,” Sandia Report SAND88-0152.UC-261, Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA.
Madsen, P. H., 1986, “Design Turbulence Loads on Horizontal-Axis Wind Turbines,” Risø Report Risø-M-2581, Risø National Lab., Denmark.
Vanderplaats, G. N., 1984, Numerical Optimization Techniques for Engineering Design with Applications, McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York.
Thomsen, K., Madsen, P. H., and Jørgensen, E., 1997, “Aeroelasticity research—state of the art and future perspective. Design load basis and safety,” (in Danish) Risø Report Risø-964(DA), Risø National Lab., Denmark.
Katic, I., Højstrup, J., and Jensen, N. O., 1986, “A Simple Model for Cluster Efficiency,” Proc. European Wind Energy Association Conf., Rome, Italy, 7–9 October, pp. 407–410.

Figures

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Overview of the design tool with necessary input and calculation models
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Wind farm layout. Horizontal and vertical spacing was 5 rotor diameters.
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Turbulence intensity for normal flat terrain and for offshore free flow and wake flow
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Percentage difference for design loads and annual energy production for normal flat terrain and for the offshore wind farm
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Fatigue damage distribution for MFlapf and MTowerf, divided into normal operation in: 4<V<14 and 14<V<26 and operation at V=25 with yaw error, y=±30°
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Relative cost distribution on main components; NT: Normal flat terrain, OS: Offshore wind farm
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Variation in reduction of cost of energy with change in design variables

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