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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Experimental Evaluation of the Dynamic Behavior of an Air-Breathing Fuel Cell Stack

[+] Author and Article Information
Svein O. Morner, Sanford A. Klein

Solar Energy Laboratory, University of Wisconsin—Madison, Madison, WI 53706

J. Sol. Energy Eng 123(3), 225-231 (Mar 01, 2001) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1385202 History: Received June 01, 2000; Revised March 01, 2001
Copyright © 2001 by ASME
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References

Bernardi,  D. M., and Verbrugge,  M., 1992, “A Mathematical Model of the Solid-Polymer-Electrolyte Fuel Cell,” J. Electrochem. Soc., 139, pp. 2477–2491.
Maggio,  G., Recupero,  V., and Mategazza,  C., 1996, “Modeling of Temperature Distribution in a Solid Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Stack,” J. Power Sources, 62, pp. 167–174.
van Bussel Hubertus,  P. L. H., Koene,  F. G. H., and Mallant,  R. K. A. M., 1998, “Dynamic Model of Solid Polymer Fuel Cell Water Management,” J. Power Sources, 71, pp. 218–222.
Thirumalai,  D., and White,  R. E., 1997, “Mathematical Modeling of Proton-Exchange-Membrane Fuel-Cell Stacks,” J. Electrochem. Soc., 144, pp. 1717–1723.
Wöhr,  M., Bolwin,  K., Schnurnberger,  W., Fischer,  M., Neubrand,  W., and Eigenberger,  G., 1998, “Dynamic Modeling and Simulation of a Polymer Membrane Fuel Cell Including Mass Transport Limitations,” Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 23, pp. 213–218.
Nguyen,  T. V., and White,  R. E., 1993, “A Water and Heat Management Model for Proton-Exchange-Membrane Fuel Cells,” J. Electrochem. Soc., 140, pp. 2178–2186.
Vanderborgh, N. E., Kimble, M. C., Huff, J. R., and Hedstrom, J. C., 1992, “PEM Fuel Cell Stack Heat and Mass Management,” Intersociety of Energy Conversion Engineering Conf., pp. 3.407–3.411.
Rho,  Y. W., Velev,  O. A., Srinivasan,  S., and Kho,  Y. T., 1994, “Mass Transport Phenomena in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells Using O2/He,O2/Ar,O2/N2 Mixtures. I. Experimental Analysis,” J. Electrochem. Soc., 141, pp. 2084–2089.
Rho,  Y. W., Velev,  O. A., Srinivasan,  S., and Kho,  Y. T., 1994, “Mass Transport Phenomena in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells Using O2/He,O2/Ar,O2/N2 Mixtures. II. Theoretical Analysis,” J. Electrochem. Soc., 141, pp. 2089–2096.
Buchi,  F., and Srinivasan,  S., 1997, “Operating Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells Without Eternal Humidification of the Reactant Gases,” J. Electrochem. Soc., 144, pp. 2767–2772.
Kim,  J., Lee,  S. M., Srinivasan,  S., and Chamberlin,  C. E., 1995, “Modeling of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Performance with an Empirical Equation,” J. Electrochem. Soc., 142, pp. 2670–2674.
Amphlett,  J. C., Baumert,  R. M., Mann,  R. F., Peppley,  B. A., Roberge,  P. R., and Harris,  T. J., 1995, “Performance of the Ballard Mark IV Solid Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell. I. Mechanistic Model Development,” J. Electrochem. Soc., 142, pp. 1–8.
Amphlett,  J. C., Baumert,  R. M., Mann,  R. F., Peppley,  B. A., Roberge,  P. R., and Harris,  T. J., 1995, “Performance of the Ballard Mark IV Solid Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell. II. Empirical Model Development,” J. Electrochem. Soc., 142, pp. 9–15.
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Figures

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Three cells in series (not to scale)
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Experimental cell stack showing data acquisition to measure temperatures and voltages over several cells and current
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Start up current with constant resistance load (13.7 Ohms). The fuel cell started to operate at 110 s.
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Temperature rise of the fuel cell stack with no current for 14 kPa hydrogen gage pressure from 0 s to 3600 s, 34 kPa from 3600 s to 7560 s, 69 kPa from 7560 s to 10800 s
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Hydrogen pressure through the fuel cell stack at a current of 2.62 A and 1.06 mm channel width. Lratio is the length divided by the total length of the channel.
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The current (thick line) and air exhaust temperature of the fuel cell stack. The resistance is kept constant from 200 s to 4200 s, 4000 s to 5800 s, and 5800 s to 10,800 s. The cooling fans are turned on at 7100 s.
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Stack current-voltage data for several temperatures measured at the top of the stack
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Stack current-voltage data for several temperatures at the top of the stack. The symbols identify the max and min temperatures on top of the stack.
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Current-voltage characteristics for cells 2, 3, average of 12 and 13, and 21 from purge valve. These data are from the same experiment as Fig. 9. The symbols identify the max and min temperatures on top of the stack.
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Stack voltage current characteristics for the fuel cell with the convection chimney with air exhaust temperature between 45 and 55°C
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Temperature and current for both humid air and ambient airflow rate (4.25 Normal liter/min) into the fuel cell stack. The fuel cell stack cooling fans were turned on for the humid airflow rate at time = 3600 s.
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The voltage of the fuel cell stack operated at 1, 2, 3 A at an extended period of time with air of ambient conditions flowing into the stack. The fuel cell stack temperature is as shown in Fig. 12 for the 4.25 Nl/min plot and similar for the 2.15 and 7.08 Nl/min plot.

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