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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Thermal Penalty of an Immersed Heat Exchanger in Integral Collector Storage Systems*

[+] Author and Article Information
Saurabh Arora, Jane Davidson, Susan Mantell

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Minnesota, 111 Church St. S.E., Minneapolis, MN 55455

Jay Burch

National Renewable Energy Laboratory Golden, CO

J. Sol. Energy Eng 123(3), 180-186 (Feb 01, 2001) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1384573 History: Received November 01, 2000; Revised February 01, 2001
Copyright © 2001 by ASME
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References

Davidson, J. H., Oberriet, D., Liu, W., and Mantell, S. C., 1999, "Are Plastic Heat Exchangers Suitable for Solar Water Heaters? Part I: A Review of Codes and Standards and Commercial Products," Proc. Renewable and Advanced Energy Systems for the 21st Century, RAES 99-7683, ASME, Maui, HI.
Liu, W., Davidson, J. H., Raman, R., and Mantell, S. C., 1999, "Thermal and Economic Analysis of Plastic Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heating," Proc. SOLAR ’99, ASES, Portland, ME.
Liu,  W., Davidson,  J. H., and Mantell,  S. C., 2000 “Thermal Analysis for Polymer Heat Exchanger for Solar Water Heating: A Case Study,” ASME J. Sol. Energy Eng., 122, No. 2, pp. 84–91.
Raman, R., Mantell, S., and Davidson, J. H., 1999, "Are Plastic Heat Exchangers Feasible for Solar Water Heaters? Part II: Material Choices," Proc. Renewable and Advanced Energy Systems for the 21st Century, RAES99-7683, ASME, Maui, Hawaii.
Raman,  R., Mantell,  S. C., Davidson,  J. H., Wu,  C., and Jorgensen,  G., 2000, “A Review of Polymer Materials for Solar Water Heating Systems,” ASME J. Sol. Energy Eng., 122, No. 2, pp. 92–100.
Brinkworth,  B. J., 1975, “Selectrion of Design Parameters for Closed-Circuit Forced-Circulation Solar Heating Systems,” Sol. Energy 17, pp. 331–333.
De Winter,  F., 1975, “Heat Exchanger Penalties in Double-Loop Solar Water Heating Systems,” Sol. Energy 17, pp. 335–337.
De Winter, F., and Horel, J. D., 1978, "Heat Exchanger Penalties in Single Loop (antifreeze) Solar Water Heating Systems," Proc. Int. Telemetering Conf., pp. 715–718.
Christensen, C., Barker, G., and Thornton, J., 2000, "Parametric Study of Thermal Performance of Integral Collector Storage Solar Water Heaters," Proc. SOLAR 2000, American Solar Energy Society, Madison, WI.
Kays, W. M., and London, A. L., 1964, Compact Heat Exchangers, McGraw Hill Inc.
Thornton, J., Arora, S., Davidson, J. H., Burch, J., Christensen, C., and Barker, G., 2000, "Modeling Advances in Low-Cost Integral Collector Storage Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems," Proc. SOLAR 2000, American Solar Energy Society, Madison, WI.
Zollner,  A., Klein,  S. A., and Beckman,  W. A., 1985, “A Performance Prediction Methodology for Integral Collection-Storage Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems,” ASME J. Sol. Energy Eng., 107, pp. 265–272.
Christensen, C., 2000, Personal Communication, Unpublished.
Lowenstein,  A., and Hiller,  C. C., 1996, “Disaggregating Residential Hot Water Use,” ASHRAE Trans., 102, No. AT-96-18-1, pp. 1–8.
Gneilinski,  V., 1976, “New Equations for Heat and Mass Transfer in Turbulent Pipe and Channel Flow,” Int. Chem. Eng., 16, No. 2, pp. 359–367.
Farrington, R. B., and Bingham, C. E., 1986, Testing and Analysis of Immersed Heat Exchangers, Technical Report No. SERI/TR-253-2866, Solar Energy Research Institute, Golden, CO.
Newton, B. J., Schmid, M., Mitchell, J. W., and Beckman, W. A., 1995, "Storage Tank Models," Proc. The ASME/JSME/JSES International Solar Energy Conf., 2, pp. 1111–1116.

Figures

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A conventional ICS system
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A proposed polymer ICS system with immersed load-side heat exchanger
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Plot of heat exchanger penalty ratio as a function of the average effectiveness of the heat exchanger and the dimensionless parameter X=ULAcΔt/Mdrawcp
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Weekday hot water load profile 13. The delivered water temperature is assumed to be 330K
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Weekend hot water load profile 13. The delivered water temperature is assumed to be 330K
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Dependence of effectiveness on NTU for an immersed heat exchanger
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The effect of temperature on the fluid properties in the natural convection thermal resistance
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Dependence of heat exchanger effectiveness on ΔT and film temperature. These curves are developed for two polymer heat exchangers described in Table 1.
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Histogram of effectiveness for the combined ICS/heat exchanger #1 system in Phoenix. These values were determined using TRNSYS type 222. The heat exchanger is described in Table 1. The flow rates are based on the load profiles in Figs. 4 and 5.
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Histogram of effectiveness for the combined ICS/heat exchanger #2 system in Phoenix. These values were determined using TRNSYS type 222. The heat exchanger is described in Table 1. The flow rates are based on the load profiles in Figs. 4 and 5.
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Comparison of calculated and simulated penalty factors for two combined ICS/heat exchanger systems in Phoenix, AZ. The calculated values are based on the average simulated temperatures, shown in Figs. 9 and 10. The heat exchangers are described in Table 1.
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(a) and (b) Comparison of calculated and simulated annual and monthly efficiencies for two combined ICS/heat exchanger systems in Phoenix, AZ. The calculated values are determined using property values at Tfilm = 320K. The values of the ΔT used in the calculated penalty factor are from the conservative and iterative procedures. (a) HX #1 with Ahx = 2.9 m2. (b) HX #2 with Ahx = 0.28 m2. The heat exchangers are described in Table 1.

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