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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Solar Production of Zinc from the Zinc Silicate Ore Willemite

[+] Author and Article Information
Anke Weidenkaff, Armin Reller

Solid State Chemistry, University of Augsburg, Universitätsstr. 1, 86159 Augsburg, Germany

Aldo Steinfeld

ETH-Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Department of Mechanical and Process Engineering, CH-8092 Zurich, Switzerland, Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232, Switzerland

J. Sol. Energy Eng 123(2), 98-101 (Nov 01, 2000) (4 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1353847 History: Received June 01, 2000; Revised November 01, 2000
Copyright © 2001 by ASME
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References

Palumbo,  R., Lede,  J., Boutin,  O., Elorza-Ricart,  E., Steinfeld,  A., Möller,  S., Weidenkaff,  A., Fletcher,  E. A., and Bielicki,  J., 1998, “The Production of Zn from ZnO in a Single Step High Temperature Solar Decomposition Process,” Chem. Eng. Sci., 53, pp. 2503–2518.
Weidenkaff,  A., Steinfeld,  A., Wokaun,  A., Auer,  P. O., Eichler,  B., and Reller,  A., 1999, “The Direct Solar Thermal Dissociation of Zinc Oxide: Condensation and Crystallisation of Zinc in the Presence of Oxygen,” Solar Energy, 65, pp. 59–69.
Steinfeld,  A., Brack,  M., Meier,  A., Weidenkaff,  A., and Wuillemin,  D., 1998, Energy, 23, pp. 803–814.
Sazama,  U., and Reller,  A. J., 1996, “The Thermochemical Reactivity of Silicate Minerals in Hydrogen and Methane,” J. Thermal Analysis, 47, pp. 357–364.
Clark,  J. A., 1979, Chem. Ind., 6, pp. 5–10.
Weidenkaff,  A., Reller,  A., Wokaun,  A., and Steinfeld,  A., 2000, “Thermogravimetric Analysis of the ZnO/Zn Water-Splitting Cycle,” Thermochim. Acta, 359, pp. 69–75.
Knacke, O., and Kubaschewski, O., 1991, in Thermochemical Properties of Inorganic Substances II, K. Hesselmann, Ed., 2 , pp., 2336–2348, Springer- Verlag, Berlin.
Weidenkaff,  A., Reller,  A., Sibieude,  F., Wokaun,  A., and Steinfeld,  A., 2000, “Experimental Investigations on the Crystallization of Zinc by Direct Irradiation of Zinc Oxide in a Solar Furnace,” Chem. Mater., 12, No. 8, pp. 2175–2181.
Bilgen,  E., Ducarroir,  M., Foex,  M., Sibieude,  F., and Trombe,  F., 1977, “Use of Solar Energy for Direct and Two-Step Water Decomposition Cycles,” Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 2, pp. 251–257.
Elliot,  P., 1991, “Minerals of the Beltana Mine, Puttabe, South Australia,” The Mineralogical Record, 22, pp. 449–456.

Figures

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Thermochemical reduction of zinc silicate in an inert gas stream (nitrogen, 100 mL/min) in a thermobalance
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Schematic and photograph of the experimental set-up for the thermochemical reduction of willemite installed in Odeillo, France
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Photograph of a partly reduced willemite sample collected in the Franklin mines, New Jersey, USA and irradiated in the dedicated solar furnace at Odeillo, France
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XRD of the zinc ore from the Puttaba mine before and after the experiment
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Scanning electron micrograph of the surface of a partly reacted willemite sample covered with molten (and resolidified) silica product
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XRD of the condensed product after the experiment after the experiment

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