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Research Papers

Effects of Terrain Slope on Nacelle Anemometry

[+] Author and Article Information
Khaled Ameur, Christian Masson

Canada Research Chair on Nordic Environment, Aerodynamics of Wind Turbines; École de technologie supérieure, Département de génie mécanique, 1100 Notre-Dame Ouest, Montréal, PQ, H3C 1K3, Canadak-ameur@hotmail.com

J. Sol. Energy Eng 134(3), 031003 (Apr 04, 2012) (10 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4006039 History: Received July 04, 2011; Revised February 06, 2012; Published April 03, 2012; Online April 04, 2012

A numerical analysis of the effects of sloped terrain on the reading of a nacelle anemometer is investigated. Simulations of the turbulent flow around a 2.5 MW wind turbine in an atmospheric boundary layer are made by resolving 3D RANS equations. In addition to flat terrain, four escarpments (at slopes of 7.5%, 11%, 14%, and 20%) are studied for various inlet velocities in three cases: terrains with no wind turbine, with nonoperating turbines and with operating turbines. The slope of the ground has two major effects on flow: speed-up and an increase in flow inclination. The presence of the nacelle enhances the flow speed-up caused by the escarpment, especially outside the anemometer’s position. However, the horizontal velocity at the location of the anemometer tends to decrease with increasing ground slope. This trend is due in large part to the nacelle wake. This disturbed area is characterized by the presence of separated flow and two opposing vortices which are sensitive to the flow inclination. The evaluated nacelle transfer function is influenced by the terrain slope but this sensitivity is reduced by displacing the position of the anemometer upward the nacelle body.

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Copyright © 2012 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

Computational domain with boundary conditions

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Figure 2

Geometries and velocities of the (a) flat terrain and (b) the escarpment

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Figure 3

Mesh: (a) Computational domain with its dimensions and a closer view of the (b) wind turbine nacelle with a part of the actuator disc

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Figure 4

Geometry and velocity of the nacelle vicinity

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Figure 6

Escarpment with no turbine: horizontal velocity at hub height position for various escarpments (Uref  = 20 m/s)

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Figure 7

Escarpment with no turbine: turbulence intensity profiles for various axial positions (Uref  = 20 m/s)

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Figure 8

Description of the flow around the anemometer position (no turbine): (a) profile of horizontal velocity and (b) flow inclination (Uref  = 20 m/s)

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Figure 9

Description of the flow around the anemometer position (with nonoperating turbine and with operating turbine): (a) and (c) profile of horizontal velocity and (b) and (d) flow inclination (Uref  = 20 m/s)

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Figure 10

Distribution of horizontal velocity and streamlines in the vicinity of the nacelle for (a)–(c) nonoperating turbine and (d)–(f) operating turbine (Uref  = 20 m/s, the black circle indicates the position of the anemometer)

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Figure 11

Effects of the escarpments on nacelle transfer function for (a) nonoperating turbine and (b) operating turbine (NWS assessed at Z/Hanemo  = 1)

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Figure 12

Effects of the escarpments on nacelle transfer function for (a) nonoperating turbine and (b) operating turbine (NWS assessed at Z/Hanemo  = 1.5)

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