We report on the field testing of a 42 m-long full-scale solar receiver prototype installed on a 9 m-aperture solar trough concentrator. The solar receiver consists of a cylindrical cavity containing a tubular absorber with air as the heat transfer fluid (HTF). Experimental results are used to validate a heat transfer model based on Monte Carlo ray-tracing and finite-volume techniques. Performance predictions obtained with the validated model yield the following results for the receiver. At summer solstice solar noon, with HTF inlet temperature of 120 °C and HTF outlet temperature in the range 250–450 °C, the receiver efficiency ranges from 45% to 29% for a solar power input of 280 kW. One third of the solar radiation incident on the receiver is lost by spillage at the aperture and reflection inside the cavity. Other heat losses are due to natural convection (9.9–9.7% of solar power input) and re-radiation (6.1–17.6%) through the cavity aperture and by natural convection from the cavity insulation (5.6–9.1%). The energy penalty associated with the HTF pumping work represents 0.6–24.4% of the power generated.