In this paper, the first-ever measurements of the wake of a full-scale wind turbine using an instrumented uninhabited aerial vehicle (UAV) are reported. The key enabler for this novel measurement approach is the integration of fast response aerodynamic probe technology with miniaturized hardware and software for UAVs that enable autonomous UAV operation. The measurements, made to support the development of advanced wind simulation tools, are made in the near-wake (0.5D–3D, where D is rotor diameter) region of a 2 MW wind turbine that is located in a topography of complex terrain and varied vegetation. Downwind of the wind turbine, profiles of the wind speed show that there is strong three-dimensional shear in the near-wake flow. Along the centerline of the wake, the deficit in wind speed is a consequence of wakes from the rotor, nacelle, and tower. By comparison with the profiles away from the centerline, the shadowing effects of nacelle and tower diminish downstream of 2.5D. Away from the centerline, the deficit in wind speed is approximately constant ≈ 25%. However, along the centerline, the deficit is ≈ 65% near to the rotor, 0.5D–1.75D, and only decreases to ≈ 25% downstream of 2.5D.