Research Papers

Exergy Analysis and Sustainability Assessment of a Solar-Ground Based Heat Pump With Thermal Energy Storage

[+] Author and Article Information
Hakan Caliskan1 n2

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Ege University, TR-35100, Izmir, Turkeyhakan.caliskan@ege.edu.tr; Hakan.Caliskan@uoit.ca

Arif Hepbasli3

Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, King Saud University, P.O. Box 800, Riyadh 11421, Saudi Arabiaahepbasli.c@ksu.edu.sa

Ibrahim Dincer

Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology, 2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, ON, L1H 7K4, CanadaIbrahim.Dincer@uoit.ca


On leave from the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Usak University, TR-64200 Usak, Turkey.


Currently working as a Visiting Researcher at the Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology (UOIT), 2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, Ontario L1H 7K4, Canada.


Corresponding author.

J. Sol. Energy Eng 133(1), 011005 (Jan 28, 2011) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4003040 History: Received April 23, 2010; Revised September 13, 2010; Published January 28, 2011; Online January 28, 2011

In this study, both energy and exergy analyses and sustainability assessment of a thermal energy storage system with a solar-ground coupled heat pump installed in a 120m2 house are performed. The actual operating data taken from the literature are utilized for model validation. The system considered here mainly consists of a solar collection system, an underground thermal storage system, an indoor air conditioning system, and a data collection system. First, energy analysis is employed to the system and its components, and the rates of energy input (solar radiation), energy storage, collector heat loss, and other heat loss are found to be 4.083 kW, 1.753 kW, 1.29 kW, and 1.04 kW for a 5 h working time, respectively, while the energy efficiency of the system is calculated to be 42.94%. Exergy analysis of the entire system is then conducted for various reference temperatures varying from 0°C to 25°C with a temperature interval of 5°C. As a result of this analysis, the rates of the maximum exergy input, exergy storage, and exergy losses are determined for a reference temperature of 0°C to be 0.585 kW, 0.24 kW, and 0.345 kW, respectively. Finally, the maximum exergy efficiency of the system is obtained to be 40.99% and the maximum sustainable development using sustainability index, which is a function of exergy efficiency, is calculated to be 1.6946 for a reference temperature of 0°C. Furthermore, the energy and exergy results are illustrated through Sankey (energy flow) and Grassmann (exergy loss and flow) diagrams.

Copyright © 2011 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figure 1

A schematic layout of the system (modified from Ref. 25)

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Figure 2

The configuration of the system (modified from Ref. 4)

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Figure 3

Main components of a general TES system

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Figure 4

Energy flow (Sankey) diagram

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Figure 5

The effects of operation period on the performance of thermal storage

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Figure 8

Exergy efficiency and sustainability index with various reference temperatures

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Figure 9

Magnitudes of the exergy losses due to irreversibilities

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Figure 10

Exergy loss and flow (Grassmann) diagram for T0=0°C

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Figure 11

Comparison of percentage of energy and exergy (T0=0°C) magnitudes

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Figure 6

The effect of the ground inlet temperature on the performance of thermal storage

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Figure 7

Exergy changing with various reference temperatures




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