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RESEARCH PAPERS

A Novel 50kW 11,000 suns High-Flux Solar Simulator Based on an Array of Xenon Arc Lamps

[+] Author and Article Information
Jörg Petrasch

Department of Mechanical and Process Engineering,  ETH Zurich, 8092 Zurich, Switzerland

Patrick Coray, Anton Meier, Max Brack, Peter Häberling, Daniel Wuillemin

Solar Technology Laboratory, Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen, Switzerland

Aldo Steinfeld

Department of Mechanical and Process Engineering, ETH Zurich, 8092 Zurich, Switzerland; Solar Technology Laboratory,  Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen, Switzerland

The stagnation temperature is the highest temperature an ideal blackbody cavity-receiver is capable of achieving when energy is being reradiated at the same rate as it is absorbed. It is given by (q̇σ)0.25, where q̇ is the radiative heat flux and σ is the Stefan-Boltzmann constant.

J. Sol. Energy Eng 129(4), 405-411 (Aug 25, 2006) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2769701 History: Received May 04, 2006; Revised August 25, 2006

A novel high-flux solar simulator, capable of delivering over 50kW of radiative power at peak radiative fluxes exceeding 11,000 suns, is operational at the Paul Scherner Institute. It comprises an array of ten Xe arcs, each close-coupled with ellipsoidal specular reflectors of common focus. Its optical design, main engineering features, and operating performance are described. The Monte Carlo ray-tracing technique is applied to optimize the geometrical configuration for maximum source-to-target transfer efficiency of radiative power. Calorimeter measurements indicated an average flux of 6800kWm2 over a 60-mm-diameter circular target, which corresponds to stagnation temperatures above 3300K. This research facility simulates the radiation characteristics of highly concentrating solar systems and serves as an experimental platform for investigating the thermochemical processing of solar fuels and for testing advanced high-temperature materials.

Copyright © 2007 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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References

Figures

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Figure 1

Truncated ellipsoid of revolution (solid part of ellipse), with geometric constraints: truncation diameter dtruncation, truncation angle α, and focal distance 2c

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Figure 2

Ellipsoid eccentricity e as a function of truncation half-angle α, for various focal distances 2c and truncation diameter dtruncation

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Figure 3

Schematic of a Xe-arc lamp

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Figure 4

Optical configuration for coupling arc and ellipsoidal reflector: (a) arc positioned with its axis perpendicular to the major ellipsoidal axis, with added secondary spherical mirror and (b) arc positioned on axis with the major ellipsoidal axis, without spherical mirror

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Figure 5

Polar angular radiative flux distribution for the Xe arc of type No. 1 (see Table 1), relative to the maximum measured flux: solid curve: measured by manufacturer; dash-dotted curve: simulated by MC

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Figure 6

Transfer efficiency η to a 6-cm-diameter target as a function of focal distance 2c for the three types of Xe arcs listed in Table 1. The parameter is the truncation angle: α=40deg, 60deg, and 80deg.

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Figure 7

Variation of the transfer efficiency η with the arc diameter darc for the optimum baseline design (α=70deg, 2c=3m, dtruncation=0.95m)

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Figure 8

Variation of η with dtarget for the optimum baseline design (α=70deg, 2c=3m, dtruncation=0.95m)

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Figure 9

Variation of η as a function of the standard deviation of the angular error ϕerr, in specularly reflected rays for the optimum baseline design (α=70deg, 2c=3m, dtruncation=0.95m)

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Figure 10

Spectral distribution of the radiative emissive power by a Xe short arc lamp (type No. 1) and by a blackbody at 5780K

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Figure 11

Optical layout of an array of ten Xe-arc lamps, each close-coupled to a truncated ellipsoidal reflector of optimum baseline design (α=70deg, 2c=3m, dtruncation=0.95m)

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Figure 12

Variation of the transfer efficiency η as a function of the tilt angle θ for the optimum baseline design (α=70deg, 2c=3m, dtruncation=0.95m)

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Figure 13

Final reflector geometry in millimeters, based on the optimum baseline design (α=70deg, 2c=3m, dtruncation=0.95m)

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Figure 14

The high-flux solar simulator at PSI

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Figure 15

Radiative flux map in MW∕m2 measured at the focal plane during operation of ten Xe-arc lamps

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Figure 16

Radiative power and mean radiative flux through a circular target located in the center of the focal plane as a function of its diameter

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Figure 17

Variation of the radiative flux distribution when moving out of the focal plane (away from the lamps)

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Figure 18

Radiative flux map in MW∕m2, 150mm out of focus (away from the lamps)

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