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RESEARCH PAPERS

# High-Temperature Liquid-Fluoride-Salt Closed-Brayton-Cycle Solar Power Towers

[+] Author and Article Information
Charles W. Forsberg

Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6165forsbergcw@ornl.gov

Per F. Peterson

University of California, Berkeley, 4153 Etcheverry, Berkeley, CA 94720-1730peterson@nuc.berkeley.edu

Haihua Zhao

Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415haihua.zhao@inl.gov

J. Sol. Energy Eng 129(2), 141-146 (Jul 08, 2006) (6 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2710245 History: Received May 03, 2005; Revised July 08, 2006

## Abstract

Liquid-fluoride-salt heat transfer fluids are proposed to raise the heat-to-electricity efficiencies of solar power towers to about 50%. The liquid salt would deliver heat from the solar furnace at temperatures between $700°C$ and $850°C$ to a closed multireheat Brayton power cycle using nitrogen or helium as the working fluid. During the daytime, hot salt may also be used to heat graphite, which would then be used as a heat storage medium to make night-time operations possible. Graphite is a low-cost high-heat-capacity solid that is chemically compatible with liquid fluoride salts at high temperatures. About half the cost of a solar power tower is associated with the mirrors that focus light on the receiver, and less than one-third is associated with the power cycle and heat storage. Consequently, increasing the efficiency by 20–30% has the potential for major reductions in the cost of electricity. Peak temperatures and efficiencies of current designs of power towers are restricted by (1) the use of liquid nitrate salts that decompose at high temperatures and (2) steam cycles in which corrosion limits peak temperature. The liquid-fluoride-salt technology and closed Brayton power cycles are being developed for high-temperature nuclear reactors. These developments may provide the technology and industrial basis for an advanced solar power tower.

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## Figures

Figure 1

Solar power tower with liquid-salt heat transport system, graphite heat storage, and Brayton power cycle

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