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RESEARCH PAPERS

Solar Disinfection Kinetic Design Parameters for Continuous Flow Reactors

[+] Author and Article Information
Laurence W. Gill

Department of Civil, Structural and Environmental Engineering,  Trinity College, Dublin 2, Irelandgilll@tcd.ie

Orlaith A. McLoughlin

Department of Civil, Structural and Environmental Engineering,  Trinity College, Dublin 2, Irelandmclougho@tcd.ie

J. Sol. Energy Eng 129(1), 111-118 (Nov 15, 2005) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2391316 History: Received July 01, 2005; Revised November 15, 2005

The main UV dose-related kinetic parameters influencing solar disinfection have been investigated for the design of a continuous flow reactor suitable for a village-scale water treatment system. The sensitivities of different pathogenic microorganisms under solar light in batch processes have been compared in order to define their relative disinfection kinetics with E. coli used as a baseline organism. Dose inactivation kinetics have been calculated for small scale disinfection systems operating under different conditions such as reflector type, flow rate, process type, photocatalytic enhancement, and temperature enhancement using E. coli K-12 as a model bacterium. Solar disinfection was shown to be successful in all experiments with a slight improvement in the disinfection kinetic found when a fixed TiO2 photocatalyst was placed in the reactor. There was also evidence that the photocatalytic mechanism prevented regrowth in the post-irradiation environment. A definite synergistic solar UV∕temperature effect was noticed at a temperature of 45°C. The disinfection kinetics for E. coli in continuous flow reactors have been investigated with respect to various reflector shapes and flow regimes by carrying out a series of experiments under natural sunlight. Finally, photocatalytic and temperature enhancements to the continuous flow process have been evaluated.

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Copyright © 2007 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

Relative solar disinfection resistance of various microorganisms in comparison to E. coli

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Figure 2

A comparison of four different solar reactors as a function of bacterial inactivation with respect to: (a) experimental time (b) cumulative dose based on reflector area (Qr); and (c) cumulative dose based on absorber plan area (Qa). Note: to avoid confusion, representative error bars are displayed on only one plot in each graph.

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Figure 3

A comparison of three different flow regimes as a function of bacterial inactivation and cumulative dose (Qa). Note: to avoid confusion, representative error bars are displayed on only one plot in each graph.

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Figure 4

A comparison of continuous flow and batch process solar disinfection as a function of bacterial inactivation with respect to: (a) cumulative dose based on experimental time (Qa) and (b) cumulative dose based on illuminated time Qaillum. Note: to avoid confusion, representative error bars are displayed on only one plot in each graph.

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Figure 5

A comparison of the effect of different methods of fixing TiO2 on the solar disinfection process plotted as a function of bacterial inactivation and Qaillum in Irish sun

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Figure 6

Bacteria numbers for each consecutive sample after 1, 2, and 24h using: (a) no TiO2 and (b) TiO2 rods

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Figure 7

Effect of temperature on the solar disinfection process as a function of bacterial inactivation and (a) cumulative UVA dose (Qaillum) and (b) experimental time

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