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RESEARCH PAPERS

Industrial Wastewater Treatment by Photochemical Processes Based on Solar Energy

[+] Author and Article Information
Claudio A. Nascimento

 Universidade de São Paulo, Departamento de Engenharia Química Av. Prof. Luciano Gualberto, travessa 3, 380, CEP 05508-900, São Paulo, SP, Braziloller@usp.br

Antonio Carlos Teixeira

 Universidade de São Paulo, Departamento de Engenharia Química Av. Prof. Luciano Gualberto, travessa 3, 380, CEP 05508-900, São Paulo, SP, Brazilacscteix@usp.br

Roberto Guardani

 Universidade de São Paulo, Departamento de Engenharia Química Av. Prof. Luciano Gualberto, travessa 3, 380, CEP 05508-900, São Paulo, SP, Brazilguardani@usp.br

Frank H. Quina

 Universidade de São Paulo, Instituto de Química, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 580—CEP 05508-900, São Paulo, SP, Brazilquina@usp.br

Osvaldo Chiavone-Filho

Departamento de Engenharia Química,  Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Campus Universitário, 59072-970 Natal, RN, Brazilosvaldo@eq.ufrn.br

André M. Braun

Lehrstuhl für Umweltmesstechnik,  Universität Karlsruhe, D-76128 Karlsruhe, Germanyandre.braun@ciw.uni-karlsruhe.de

J. Sol. Energy Eng 129(1), 45-52 (Dec 19, 2005) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2391015 History: Received July 05, 2005; Revised December 19, 2005

Background: The solar photo-Fenton process has enormous potential for becoming a viable alternative to conventional processes for the treatment of industrial wastewater. However, the costs associated with the use of artificial irradiation have hindered many times industrial application of these processes. Method of Approach: In this work, the photo-Fenton remediation of various industrial wastewaters (containing silicones, pesticides, phenol and hydrocarbons, model, and real) in aqueous systems has been studied using Fe(II), H2O2, and UV-visible sunlight. Experiments were carried out using a concentrating parabolic trough reactor (PTR) and a nonconcentrating falling-film reactor. Results: In general, at low contaminant concentration, more than 90% of the total organic carbon content could be converted to inorganic carbon within about 23h, using sunlight, in reactors of different geometry. Conclusions: Solar light can be used either as an effective complementary or alternative source of photons to the photo-Fenton degradation process of a diversity of chemical pollutants.

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Figures

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Figure 1

(a) View of the solar parabolic-through reactor (PTR). (b) View of the solar falling-film reactor

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Figure 2

Typical radiation measurements. Incident solar radiation (irradiance, in Wm−2) and the corresponding accumulated radiant energy (in kJ) for groups A (clear, sunny days with the sky free or almost free from moving clouds) (a); B (sky moderately covered with clouds) (b); and C (heavily clouded days) (c). Left ordinate axis: measured global radiation (—) and measured diffuse radiation (---). Right ordinate axis: accumulated direct radiant energy (—) and accumulated diffuse radiant energy (---)

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Figure 3

Degradation of silicone in water emulsions by the photo-Fenton reaction carried out in the solar PTR reactor under insolation conditions of groups A, B, and C (see Fig. 2 for the meaning of groups). Total volume of aqueous emulsion: 2L; circulation flow rate: 1.5Lmin−1; temperature: 40°C. (a) [Fe(II)]=0.5mmolL−1: 2A ([H2O2]=387.5mmolL−1); 4A ([H2O2]=162.5mmolL−1). (b) [Fe(II)]=2.8mmolL−1: 1A ([H2O2]=500mmolL−1); 3A ([H2O2]=50mmolL−1); 6A ([H2O2]=275mmolL−1). (c) [Fe(II)]=5.0mmolL−1: 5A ([H2O2]=387.5mmolL−1); 7A ([H2O2]=162.5mmolL−1). (d) [Fe(II)]=0.5mmolL−1: 2C ([H2O2]=387.5mmolL−1); 4B ([H2O2]=162.5mmolL−1). (e) [Fe(II)]=2.8mmolL−1: 1B ([H2O2]=500mmolL−1); 1C ([H2O2]=500mmolL−1); 3B ([H2O2]=50mmolL−1); 6B ([H2O2]=275mmolL−1). (f) [Fe(II)]=5.0mmolL−1: 5B ([H2O2]=387.5mmolL−1); 7B ([H2O2]=162.5mmolL−1). [Fe(II)] refers to the iron concentration at time t=0. [H2O2] refers to the concentration of the H2O2 aqueous solution pumped to the reactor at a constant feed rate (4×10−4Lmin−1).

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Figure 4

Degradation of the pesticide clomazone in water solutions by the photo-Fenton reaction carried out in the solar PTR reactor. Total volume of aqueous solution: 5L; circulation flow rate: 30Lmin−1; temperature: 29°C–45°C. H2O2 solution feed rate: 8.3×10−4Lmin−1. (a) [Fe(II)]=0.1mmolL−1: CLZ-S4 (H2O2:C=1.625); CLZ-S5 (H2O2:C=3.875). (b) [Fe(II)]=0.55mmolL−1: CLZ-S3 (H2O2:C=0.5); CLZ-S6 (H2O2:C=5). (c) [Fe(II)]=1.0mmolL−1: CLZ-S2 (H2O2:C=1.625); CLZ-S7 (H2O2:C=3.875). [Fe(II)] refers to the iron concentration at time t=0. H2O2:C refers to the molar ratio calculated from the nominal DOC0(100mgL−1).

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Figure 5

Degradation of phenol in water solutions by the photo-Fenton reaction carried out in the solar PTR (one tube used), the falling-film reactor, and in an artificially irradiated photochemical reactor (450W medium pressure mercury lamp). [H2O2]=100mmolL−1, [Fe(II)]=1.0mmolL−1. Total volume of aqueous solution: 6L (PTR and falling-film reactors) and 3L (artificially irradiated reactor); circulation flow rate: 1.2Lmin−1; temperature: 50°C. (a) DOC0=100mgCL−1. (b) DOC0=1000mgCL−1. [Fe(II)] refers to the iron concentration at time t=0. [H2O2] refers to the total volume of the aqueous solution in the system; H2O2 solution feed rate: 8.3×10−4Lmin−1.

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Figure 6

(a) Degradation of phenol in water solutions by the photo-Fenton reaction carried out in the solar PTR reactor (one tube used) and (b) corresponding global irradiance-time profiles. DOC0=100mgCL−1; [H2O2]=100mmolL−1, [Fe(II)]=1.0mmolL−1. Total volume of aqueous solution: 6L; circulation flow rate: 1.2Lmin−1; temperature: 50°C. [Fe(II)] refers to the iron concentration at time t=0. [H2O2] refers to the total volume of the aqueous solution in the system; H2O2 solution feed rate: 8.3×10−4Lmin−1.

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Figure 7

(a) Degradation of phenol in water solutions by the photo-Fenton reaction carried out in the solar PTR reactor (one tube used) and (b) corresponding global irradiance-time profiles. DOC0=550mgCL−1; [H2O2]=100mmolL−1, [Fe(II)]=1.0mmolL−1. Total volume of aqueous solution: 6L; circulation flow rate: 1.2Lmin−1; temperature: 50°C. [Fe(II)] refers to the iron concentration at time t=0. [H2O2] refers to the total volume of the aqueous solution in the system; H2O2 solution feed rate: 8.3×10−4Lmin−1.

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Figure 8

Remaining fraction of the initial DOC as a function of the accumulated radiant energy per unit collector area, for the photo-Fenton experiments carried out with phenol solutions in the PTR under different insolation conditions (the number of tubes varied from one to nine). [H2O2]=70mmolL−1; [Fe(II)]=0.5mmolL−1. Total volume of aqueous solution: 6L; circulation flow rate: 1.2Lmin−1; temperature: 50°C. [Fe(II)] refers to the iron concentration at time t=0. [H2O2] refers to the total volume of the aqueous solution in the system; H2O2 solution feed rate: 8.3×10−4Lmin−1.

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Figure 9

Remediation of the oil-field produced water by the photo-Fenton reaction carried out in the solar falling-film reactor. [H2O2]=200mmolL−1; [Fe(II)]=1.0mmolL−1. Total volume of aqueous solution: 7.7L; circulation flow rate: 17Lmin−1; temperature: 25°C–60°C. [Fe(II)] refers to the iron concentration at time t=0. [H2O2] refers to the total volume of the aqueous solution in the system; H2O2 solution feed rate: 1.7×10−3Lmin−1. The number close to each data point refers to the temperature of the reaction system at each sampling time.

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Figure 10

Degradation of raw gasoline in water systems by the photo-Fenton reaction carried out in the solar falling-film reactor. (a) [H2O2]=100mmolL−1; [NaCl]=200mgL−1. (b) [Fe(II)]=0.5mmolL−1; [NaCl]=2000mgL−1. (c) [Fe(II)]=1.0mmolL−1; [H2O2]=200mmolL−1. Total volume of aqueous solution: 7.6L; circulation flow rate: 17Lmin−1; temperature: 25°C–60°C. [Fe(II)] refers to the iron concentration at time t=0. [H2O2] refers to the total volume of the aqueous solution in the system; H2O2 solution feed rate: 1.7×10−3Lmin−1.

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