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Research Papers

Design Loads for Wind Turbines Using the Environmental Contour Method

[+] Author and Article Information
Korn Saranyasoontorn, Lance Manuel

Department of Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering,  University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712

J. Sol. Energy Eng 128(4), 554-561 (Jul 20, 2006) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2346700 History: Received February 02, 2006; Revised July 20, 2006

When interest is in establishing ultimate design loads for wind turbines such that a service life of, say, 20 years is assured, alternative procedures are available. One class of methods works by employing statistical loads extrapolation techniques following development first of 10-minute load maxima distributions (conditional on inflow parameters such as mean wind speed and turbulence intensity). The parametric conditional load distributions require extensive turbine response simulations over the entire inflow parameter range. We will refer to this first class of methods as the “parametric method.” An alternative method is based on traditional structural reliability concepts and isolates only a subset of interesting inflow parameter combinations that are easily first found by working backward from the target return period of interest. This so-called inverse reliability method can take on various forms depending on the number of variables that are modeled as random. An especially attractive form that separates inflow (environmental) variables from turbine load∕response variables and further neglects variability in the load variables given inflow is referred to as the environmental contour (EC) method. We shall show that the EC method requires considerably smaller amounts of computation than the parametric method. We compare accuracy and efficiency of the two methods in 1- and 20-year design out-of-plane blade bending loads at the root of two 1.5 MW turbines. Simulation models for these two turbines with contrasting features, in that one is stall-regulated and the other pitch-regulated, are used here. Refinements to the EC method that account for the effects of the neglected response variability are proposed to improve the turbine design load estimates.

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Copyright © 2006 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

Environmental contours corresponding to 1- and 20‐year return periods. (The 20‐years contour is also shown before truncation below cut-in and above cut-out wind speeds.)

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Figure 2

Environmental contour corresponding to a 20‐year return period in standard normal space along with the 13 points on the contour used to search for the maximum 10‐minute OOPB load

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Figure 3

Estimated 20‐year median extreme OOPB loads for the stall-regulated and pitch-regulated turbines for 13 different wind conditions (V ranged from 5to25m∕s and σ ranged from 3.0to5.1m∕s)

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Figure 4

Flowchart for deriving a T-year design load using the environmental contour (EC) method. (N is the number of wind conditions used in the search for the maximum extreme load; M is the number of simulations for each wind condition.)

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Figure 5

20‐years environmental contours and OOPB load iso-response lines for the (a) pitch-regulated and (b) stall-regulated turbines

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Figure 6

Mean values and 90% confidence intervals on median 10‐minute extreme OOPB loads for the (a) stall-regulated and (b) pitch-regulated turbines based on different numbers of 10‐minute simulations.

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