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Research Papers

Characterization of Three-Dimensional Effects for the Rotating and Parked NREL Phase VI Wind Turbine

[+] Author and Article Information
Sven Schmitz

Department of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616-5294shschmitz@ucdavis.edu

Jean-Jacques Chattot

Department of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616-5294jjchattot@ucdavis.edu

J. Sol. Energy Eng 128(4), 445-454 (Jul 16, 2006) (10 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2349548 History: Received February 24, 2006; Revised July 16, 2006

This paper addresses three-dimensional effects which are pertinent to wind turbine aerodynamics. Two computational models were applied to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory Phase VI Rotor under rotating and parked conditions, a vortex line method using a prescribed wake, and a parallelized coupled Navier-Stokes/vortex-panel solver (PCS). The linking of the spanwise distribution of bound circulation between both models enabled the quantification of three-dimensional effects with PCS. For the rotating turbine under fully attached flow conditions, the effects of the vortex sheet dissipation and replacement by a rolled-up vortex on the computed radial force coefficients were investigated. A quantitative analysis of both radial pumping and Coriolis effect, known as the Himmelskamp effect, was performed for viscous as well as inviscid flow. For the parked turbine, both models were applied at various pitch angles corresponding to fully attached as well as stalled flow. For partially stalled flow, computed results revealed a vortical structure trailing from the blade’s upper surface close to the 40% radial station. This trailing vortex was documented as a highly unsteady flow structure in an earlier detached eddy simulation by another group, however, it was not directly observed experimentally but only inferred. Computed results show very good agreement with measured wind tunnel data for the PCS model. Finally, a new method for extracting three-dimensional airfoil data is proposed that is particularly well suited for highly stalled flow conditions.

Copyright © 2006 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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References

Figures

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Figure 1

NREL Phase VI Rotor in the NASA Ames (80ft×120ft) wind tunnel (Photographs by L. J. Fingersh, NREL)

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Figure 2

2D polar data for the S809 airfoil and VLM operating points (NREL Phase VI Rotor, rotating, S-sequence, U∞=7m∕s)

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Figure 3

2D polar data for the S809 airfoil and VLM operating points (NREL Phase VI Rotor, parked, L-sequence, U∞=20.1m∕s)

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Figure 4

Vorticity contours and contour line at r∕R=0.90 (Parked, L-sequence, U∞=20.1m∕s, α47=33.50deg)

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Figure 5

Decomposition of computational grid into near field and far field, rotating

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Figure 6

Decomposition of computational grid into near field and far field, parked

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Figure 7

Sectional airfoil force coefficients (courtesy of NREL)

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Figure 8

Distribution of bound circulation (NREL Phase VI Rotor, S-sequence, U∞=7m∕s)

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Figure 9

Effect of vortex sheet dissipation and rollup on bound circulation for 1 and 20 revo modeled in wake (NREL Phase VI Rotor, S-sequence, U∞=7m∕s)

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Figure 10

Normal and tangential force coefficients for 1 and 20 revo modeled in wake (NREL Phase VI Rotor, S-sequence, U∞=7m∕s)

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Figure 11

Normal force coefficient, parked (L-sequence, U∞=20.1m∕s)

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Figure 12

Tangential force coefficient, parked (L-sequence, U∞=20.1m∕s)

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Figure 13

Pressure coefficient, parked (L-sequence, U∞=20.1m∕s, α47=3.53deg)

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Figure 14

Pressure coefficient, parked (L-sequence, U∞=20.1m∕s, α47=23.49deg)

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Figure 15

Distribution of bound circulation, parked (L-sequence, U∞=20.1m∕s)

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Figure 16

Iso-vorticity surface behind NREL Phase VI Blade (ω=19s−1), parked (L-sequence, U∞=20.1m∕s)

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Figure 17

Spanwise lift coefficient Cl, parked (L-sequence, U∞=20.1m∕s)

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Figure 18

Spanwise drag coefficient Cd and local incidence α, parked (L-sequence, U∞=20.1m∕s)

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