Self-Excitation and Harmonics in Wind Power Generation

[+] Author and Article Information
E. Muljadi, C. P. Butterfield

 National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401

H. Romanowitz

 Oak Creek Energy Systems Inc., Mojave, California 93501

R. Yinger

 Southern California Edison, Rosemead, California 91770

J. Sol. Energy Eng 127(4), 581-587 (Jul 22, 2005) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2047590 History: Received February 28, 2005; Revised July 22, 2005

Traditional wind turbines are commonly equipped with induction generators because they are inexpensive, rugged, and require very little maintenance. Unfortunately, induction generators require reactive power from the grid to operate; capacitor compensation is often used. Because the level of required reactive power varies with the output power, the capacitor compensation must be adjusted as the output power varies. The interactions among the wind turbine, the power network, and the capacitor compensation are important aspects of wind generation that may result in self-excitation and higher harmonic content in the output current. This paper examines the factors that control these phenomena and gives some guidelines on how they can be controlled or eliminated.

Copyright © 2005 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figure 1

The physical diagram of the system under investigation

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Figure 2

Per phase equivalent circuit of an induction generator under self-excitation mode

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Figure 3

A typical magnetization characteristic

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Figure 4

Variation of slip for a typical self-excited induction generator

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Figure 5

Terminal voltage versus rotor speed for different RL and C

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Figure 6

The generator torque vs. rotor speed for different RL and C

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Figure 7

The generator output power and rotor speed vs. time

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Figure 8

The terminal voltage versus the time. (a) Voltage during self-excitation. (b) Voltage before and during self-excitation, and after reconnection.

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Figure 9

The per phase equivalent circuit of the simplified model for harmonic analysis

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Figure 10

(a) The total admittance for higher harmonics (odd and non-triplen) as a function of reactive compensation. (b) Total harmonic distortion of the current as a function of the reactive compensation in per unit.

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Figure 11

(a) Per-phase equivalent circuit of a transformer. (b) Phasor diagram for P>0,Q>0. (c) Phasor diagram for P>0,Q<0.

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Figure 12

The output voltage and current of a transformer under light load condition

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Figure 13

Output current of a transformer under loaded condition




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