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RESEARCH PAPERS

Numerical Simulation of the Aerodynamics of Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines under Yawed Flow Conditions

[+] Author and Article Information
Chanin Tongchitpakdee1

School of Aerospace Engineering,  Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0150chanin_tongchitpakdee@ae.gatech.edu

Sarun Benjanirat1

School of Aerospace Engineering,  Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0150sarun_benjanirat@ae.gatech.edu

Lakshmi N. Sankar2

School of Aerospace Engineering,  Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0150lsankar@ae.gatech.edu

1

Graduate Research Assistant, 270 Ferst Drive, Atlanta, GA 30332-0150, Student Member AIAA.

2

Regents Professor and Associate Chair (Academic), 270 Ferst Drive, Atlanta, GA 30332-0150, Associate Fellow AIAA.

J. Sol. Energy Eng. 127(4), 464-474 (Jun 23, 2005) (11 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2035705 History: Received January 30, 2005; Revised June 21, 2005; Accepted June 23, 2005

The aerodynamic performance of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Phase VI horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT) under yawed flow conditions is studied using a three-dimensional unsteady viscous flow analysis. Simulations have been performed for upwind cases at several wind speeds and yaw angles. Results presented include radial distribution of the normal and tangential forces, shaft torque, root flap moment, and surface pressure distributions at selected radial locations. The results are compared with the experimental data for the NREL Phase VI rotor. At low wind speeds (7ms) where the flow is fully attached, even an algebraic turbulence model based simulation gives good agreement with measurements. When the flow is massively separated (wind speed of 20ms or above), many of the computed quantities become insensitive to turbulence and transition model effects, and the calculations show overall agreement with experiments. When the flow is partially separated at wind speed above 15ms, encouraging results were obtained with a combination of the Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model and Eppler’s transition model only at high enough wind speeds.

Copyright © 2005 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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References

Figures

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Figure 1

Overview of the mesh used for the computations

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Figure 2

Radial distribution of the normal force coefficient CN at 5m∕s; Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model

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Figure 3

Radial distribution of the normal force coefficient CN at 7m∕s; Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model

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Figure 4

Radial distribution of the tangential force coefficient CT at 5m∕s; Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model

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Figure 5

Radial distribution of the tangential force coefficient CT at 7m∕s; Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model

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Figure 6

Variation of the torque generated by the rotor as a function of yaw angle; Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model

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Figure 7

Variation of the root flap moment as a function of yaw angle; Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model

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Figure 8

Pressure distribution of the 5m∕s and 30 deg yaw case; Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model

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Figure 9

Pressure distribution of the 7m∕s and 30 deg yaw case; Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model

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Figure 10

Radial distribution of the normal force coefficient CN at 20 and 25m∕s (zero yaw)

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Figure 11

Radial distribution of the tangential force coefficient CT at 20 and 25m∕s (zero yaw)

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Figure 12

Prediction of shaft torque with various turbulence models

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Figure 13

Prediction of root flap moment with various turbulence models

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Pressure distribution of the 25m∕s and zero yaw case; k-ε turbulence model

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Figure 15

Radial distribution of the normal force coefficient CN at 15m∕s (30 and 45 deg yaw)

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Figure 16

Variation of the torque generated by the rotor as a function of yaw angle; at 15m∕s

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Figure 17

Variation of the root flap moment as a function of yaw angle; at 15m∕s

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Figure 18

Radial distribution of the normal force coefficient CN at 10m∕s (10 and 30 deg yaw)

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Figure 19

Radial distribution of the tangential force coefficient CT at 10m∕s (10 and 30 deg yaw)

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Figure 20

Variation of the torque generated by the rotor as a function of yaw angle; at 10m∕s

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Figure 21

Variation of the root flap moment as a function of yaw angle; at 10m∕s

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Figure 22

Comparison of computed and measured rotor power

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