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RESEARCH PAPERS

Modelling and Design of Direct Solar Steam Generating Collector Fields

[+] Author and Article Information
M. Eck, W.-D. Steinmann

German Aerospace Center (DLR), Institute of Technical Thermodynamics, Pfaffenwaldring 38-40, 70569 Stuttgart, Germany

J. Sol. Energy Eng 127(3), 371-380 (Jul 20, 2005) (10 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1849225 History: Received April 27, 2004; Revised August 10, 2004; Online July 20, 2005
Copyright © 2005 by ASME
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References

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Goebel, O., 1997, “Modelling of Two-Phase Stratified an Annular Flow in Heated Horizontal Tubes,” Convective Flow Boiling Conference, Kloster, Irsee.
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Chisholm,  D., 1980, “Two-Phase Flow in Bends,” Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 6, pp. 363–367.
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VDI ed., 1993, VDI Heat Atlas, VDI-Verlag, Düsseldorf.
Gungor,  K. E., and Winterton,  R. H. S., 1986, “A General Correlation for Flow Boiling in Tubes and in Dnnuli,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 29, pp. 351–358.
Cooper, M. G., 1984, “Saturation Nucleate Pool’Boiling. A Simple Correlation,” 1st UK National on Heat Transfer, Int., Chem. E. Symposium Series, Vol. 2, No. 86, pp. 785–793.
Dudley, V. E., Kolb, G. J., Mahoney, A. R., Mathews, C. W., Sloan, M., and Kearney, D., 1994, Test Results SEGS LS-2 Solar Collectors, Sandia Report SAND94-1884.
Lüpfert, E. et al., 2003, EuroTrough II—Final Report of the European Project, ERK6-CT1999-00018.
Eck,  M., Zarza,  E., Eickhoff,  M., Rheinländer,  J., and Valenzuela,  L., 2003, “Applied Research Concerning the Direct Steam Generation in Parabolic Troughs,” Sol. Energy, 74, pp. 341–351.
Gonzales, L., Zarza, E., and Yebra, L. J., 2001, Determinacion del Modificador por Angulo de Incidencia de un colector solar LS-3, incluyendo las peridas geometricas for final de colector, Internal Report of the DISS Project, Doc. ID. DISS-SC-SF-29.
Eck,  M., Steinmann,  W.-D., and Rheinländer,  J., 2004, “The Influence of a Tilted Absorber Tube on the Maximum Temperature Difference,” Energy, 29, pp. 665–676.
Technische Regeln für Dampfkessel (TRD): Festigkeitsberechnung von Dampfkesseln—TRD 300, Carl Heymanns Verlag, Köln (2001).
Kreider, J. F., and Kreith, F., 1981, Solar Energy Handbook, McGraw–Hill, New York, St. Louis, San Francisco.
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Figures

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Main flow patterns for direct steam generation
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Schematic cross section of an evaporation tube
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March of the specific pressure loss along the collector loop (di=50 mm,M=1 kg/s)
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Heat transfer coefficient as a function of the spec. enthalpy for different heat flux densities. In two-phase region only the heat transfer coefficient in the wetted and heated region is displayed. (p=100 bar,Ṁ=1 kg/s,di=50 mm)
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Heat transfer coefficient as a function of the spec. Enthalpy for different pressures. In the two-phase region only the heat transfer coefficient in the wetted and heated region is displayed. (q̇=40 kW/m2,Ṁ=1 kg/s,d=50 mm)
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Collector efficiency as a function of the difference between operation and ambient temperature (T−Ta) for different values of the DNI (φ=0 deg, Cermet with Vacuum, LS-2 collector)
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Typical heat flux distribution along the outer surface of an absorber tube and its approximation by a gaussian and a rectangular distribution with σ=60 deg
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Schematic illustration of an absorber cross section with the four different sections
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Developed view of an absorber tube segment for the derivation of the analytical solution. The depth of the Segment is Δz.
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Comparison of the temperature along the medium center line of the absorber cross section calculated with the FEM package ANSYS® and the analytical solution. (two-phase-flow, heated from the side)
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Pressure along the collector loop for the different operation modes (p=100 bar,Tout=400°C,di=50 mm, DNI=800 W/m2 )
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Difference between highest and lowest temperature in the cross section along the collector loop for the different operation modes (p=100 bar,Tout=400°C,di=50 mm, DNI=800 W/m2 )
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Calculated march of the pressure along the collector length for different inner diameters
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IPSEPro Simulation of one half of a 5 MW DSG collector field
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Simulated temperature difference between the medium center line and the fluid temperature
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Simulated temperature field in an absorber cross section of the superheating section using the FEM package ANSYS®
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Absolute value of the maximum Stress in the absorber tube due to a pure pressure load, a pure thermal load and a combined pressure and thermal load
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Long time rupture strength of possible absorber materials 21
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Stability curve of the evaporation section for different inlet temperatures

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