0
TECHNICAL PAPERS

Thermal Characterization of Prototypical Integral Collector Storage Systems With Immersed Heat Exchangers

[+] Author and Article Information
W. Liu, J. H. Davidson, F. A. Kulacki

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Minnesota 11 Church Street, SE, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 USA

J. Sol. Energy Eng 127(1), 21-28 (Feb 07, 2005) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1824106 History: Received April 28, 2004; Revised May 10, 2004; Online February 07, 2005
Copyright © 2005 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Bourne, D., Lee, E., Callaway, D., and Plaisted, J., 2003, “Design and Development of a Low Cost ICS Solar Water Heater,” Solar 2003, Proceedings, 32nd American Solar Energy Society Annual Conference, Austin, TX, R. Campbell-Howe, ed., American Solar Energy Society, Boulder, CO 80301, CDROM.
Liu,  W., Davidson,  J. H., Kulacki,  F. A., and Mantell,  S. C., 2003, “Natural Convection From a Horizontal Tube Heat Exchanger Immersed in a Tilted Enclosure,” J. Sol. Energy Eng., 125, pp. 67–75.
Liu, W., Davidson, J. H., and Kulacki, F. A., 2003, “Natural Convection From a Tube Bundle in a Thin Inclined Enclosure,” Proceedings, International Mechanical Engineering Conference and Exposition, Paper IMECE2003-44543, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York.
Davidson, J. H., Mantell, S. C., and Jorgensen, G., 2002, “Status of the Development of Polymeric Solar Water Heating Systems,” Advances in Solar Energy, D. Y. Goswami, ed., American Solar Energy Society, Boulder, CO 80301, Vol. 15, pp. 149–186.
Eckert, E. R. G., and Soehngen, E., 1948, “Studies on Heat Transfer in Laminar Free Convection With the Zehnder-Mach Interferometer,” AF Technical Report No. 5747, U.S.A.F., Air Material Command, Wright Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton.
Lieberman,  J., and Gebhart,  B., 1969, “Interactions in Natural Convection From an Array of Heated Elements, Experimental,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 12(11), pp. 1385–1396.
Marsters,  G. F., 1972, “Arrays of Heated Horizontal Cylinders in Natural Convection,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 15(5), pp. 921–933.
Tillman, E. S., 1976, “Natural Convection Heat Transfer From Horizontal Tube Bundles,” Proceedings, ASME-AIChE National Heat Transfer Conference, Paper 76-HT-35, St. Louis, Mo.
Sparrow,  E. M., and Niethammer,  J. E., 1981, “Effect of Vertical Separation Distance and Cylinder-to-Cylinder Temperature Imbalance on Natural Convection for a Pair of Horizontal Cylinders,” J. Heat Transfer, 103(4), pp. 638–644.
Choi, K. J., 1983, Natural Convection Heat Transfer Within Horizontal Tube Bundles, Ph.D. dissertation, Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Wisconsin-Madison.
Sparrow,  E. M., and Boessneck,  D. S., 1983, “Effect of Transverse Misalignment on Natural Convection From a Pair of Parallel, Vertically Stacked, Horizontal Cylinders,” J. Heat Transfer, 105(2), pp. 241–247.
Tokura,  I., Saito,  H., Kishinami,  K., and Muramoto,  K., 1983, “An Experimental Study of Free Convection Heat Transfer From a Horizontal Cylinder in a Vertical Array Set in Free Space Between Parallel Walls,” J. Heat Transfer, 105(1), pp. 102–107.
Hunter, R. G., and Chato, J. C., 1987, “Natural-Convection Heat Transfer From Parallel, Horizontal Cylinders,” ASHRAE Transactions, Technical Paper No. 3100, Vol. 93, Part 2, pp. 752–763.
Choi,  K., and Cha,  S., 1990, “Plume-Rise Effect on Natural Convection Heat Transfer in Staggered Arrays of Circular Heating Elements,” J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer, 4(2), pp. 228–232.
Sadeghipour,  M. S., and Asheghi,  M., 1994, “Free Convection Heat Transfer From Arrays of Vertically Separated Horizontal Cylinders at Low Rayleigh Numbers,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 37(1), pp. 103–109.
Bejan,  A., Fowler,  A. J., and Stanescu,  G., 1995, “The Optimal Spacing Between Horizontal Cylinders in a Fixed Volume Cooled by Natural Convection,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 38(11), pp. 2047–2055.
Tokanai,  H., Kuriyama,  M., Harada,  E., and Konno,  H., 1997, “Natural Convection Heat Transfer From Vertical and Inclined Arrays of Horizontal Cylinders to Air,” J. Chem. Eng. Jpn., 30(4), pp. 728–735.
Tokanai,  H., Kuriyama,  M., Harada,  E., and Konno,  H., 1997, “Natural Convection Heat Transfer to Air From a Horizontal Array of Cylinders With Different Surface Temperatures,” Heat Transfer—Japanese Research,26(2), pp. 116–121.
Warrington,  R. O., and Crupper,  G., 1981, “Natural Convection Heat Transfer Between Cylindrical Tube Bundles and a Cubical Enclosure,” J. Heat Transfer, 103, pp. 103–107.
Keyhani,  M., and Luo,  L., 1995, “A Numerical Study of Convection Heat Transfer Within Enclosed Horizontal Rod Bundles,” Nucl. Sci. Eng., 119(2), pp. 116–127.
Canaan,  R. E., and Klein,  D. E., 1996, “An Experimental Investigation of Natural Convection Heat Transfer Within Horizontal Spent-Fuel Assemblies,” Nucl. Technol., 116(3), pp. 306–318.
Keyhani,  M., and Dalton,  T., 1996, “Natural Convection Heat Transfer in Horizontal Rod-Bundle Enclosures,” J. Heat Transfer, 118(3), pp. 598–605.
Vdovets,  N. V., Grivnin,  A. I., Gotovskii,  M. A., Pervitskaya,  T. A., Fromzel,  V. N., Fedorovich,  E. D., and Shleifer,  V. A., 1986, “Natural-Convection Heat Transfer in Horizontal Bundles of Fuel Rods,” High Temperature—USSR,24(4), pp. 545–552.
Khalillolahi,  A., and Sammakia,  B., 1990, “The Thermal Capacity Effect Upon Transient Natural Convection in a Rectangular Cavity,” J. Electron. Packag., 112(4), pp. 357–366.
Khalilollahi,  A., and Sammakia,  B., 1986, “Unsteady Natural Convection Generated by a Heated Surface Within an Enclosure,” Numer. Heat Transfer, 9(6), pp. 715–730.
Reindl, D. T., 1992, Source Driven Transient Natural Convection in Enclosures, Ph.D. dissertation, University of Wisconsin-Madison.
Reindl, D. T., Beckman, W. A., and Mitchell, J. W., 1992, “Transient Natural Convection From a Vertical Flat Plate in a Rectangular Enclosure,” Proceedings, 28th National Heat Transfer Conference and Exhibition, San Diego, ASME, Vol. 198, pp. 91–98.
Reindl,  D. T., Beckman,  W. A., and Mitchell,  J. W., 1992, “Transient Natural Convection in Enclosures With Application to Solar Thermal Storage Tanks,” Sol. Energy, 114, pp. 175–181.
Feiereisen, T. J., Klein, S. A., Duffie, J. A., and Beckman, W. A., 1982, “Heat Transfer From Immersed Coils,” Proceedings ASME Winter Annual Meeting, Technical Paper No. 82 WA/SOL-18.
Farrington, R. B., 1986, “Test Results of Immersed Coil Heat Exchangers and Liquid Storage Tanks Used in the Packaged Systems Program,” SERI/TR-254-2841, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO.
Farrington, R. B., and Bingham, C. E., 1986, “Testing and Analysis of Immersed Heat Exchangers,” SERI/TR-253-2866, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO.
Churchill,  S. W., and Chu,  H. H. S., 1975, “Correlating Equations for Laminar and Turbulent Free Convection From a Horizontal Cylinder,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 18(9), pp. 1049–1053.
Morgan, V. T., 1975, “The Overall Convective Heat Transfer From Smooth Circular Cylinders,” Advances Heat Transfer, Hartnett, J. and Irvine, T., Jr., eds., Vol. 11, Wiley Interscience, New York, pp. 199–264.
Arnold,  J. N., Catton,  I., and Edwards,  D., 1976, “Experimental Investigation of Natural Convection in Inclined Rectangular Regions of Differing Aspect Ratios,” J. Heat Transfer, 98(1), pp. 67–71.
Ozoe,  H., Eujii,  K., Lior,  N., and Churchill,  S. W., 1983, “Long Rolls Generated by Natural Convection in an Inclined, Rectangular Enclosure,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 26(10), pp. 1427–1438.
Liu, W., 2003, Natural Convection Heat Transfer From Horizontal Tube Bundles Immersed in Tilted Thin Enclosures, Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Minnesota.
Wu, L., and Bannerot, R. B., 1987, “Experimental Study of the Effect of Water Extraction on Thermal Stratification in Storage,” Proceedings, 1987 ASME-JSME-JSES Solar Energy Conference, Honolulu, Vol. 1, pp. 445–451.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Conceptual drawing of an integral solar collector storage (ICS) system with an immersed tube bundle, or heat exchanger, for domestic water heating
Grahic Jump Location
Geometry and boundary conditions of the experimental enclosure. The immersed tube bundle shown here is for illustration only. During discharge, pressurized water flows in the tubes. During charging, a uniform heat flux is applied at the top surface.
Grahic Jump Location
Locations of the thermocouple junctions within the enclosure. Additional thermocouples are placed within the tube bundles as shown in Figs. 456. All dimensions are in centimeters. Dimensions along the z axis (x=0 cm) are the locations of thermocouples on the center (z-y) plane.
Grahic Jump Location
The tube bundle with P/D=1.5. (a) Planes A, B, C, and D contain thermocouples for measurement of wall and fluid temperatures. Planes A to D are similarly located for P/D=2.4 and 3.3. (b) Locations of thermocouples in the bundle. To measure water temperature, gauge 36 type-T thermocouple wires are attached to the tube wall with epoxy and the junctions are located ∼1.6 mm from the tube wall and outside the thermal boundary layer on the tube. Wall temperatures are measured with gauge 36 type-T thermocouples junctions soldered to tube surface. Thermocouples attached to tubes 1, 2, 5, and 6 measure wall temperatures. Thermocouples attached to tubes 3 and 4 measure water temperatures within the bundle. Thermocouples 19 to 23 measure fluid temperature around the bundle. The thermocouples are represented as solid circles. All dimensions are in cm.
Grahic Jump Location
The tube bundle with P/D=2.4. Tubes 1, 2, 5, and 6 are instrumented to measure the tube wall temperature. Tubes 3 and 4 are instrumented to measure the surrounding water temperature. Thermocouples 18, 19, and 21 to 23 measure water temperature near the center plane (x=0). All dimensions are in centimeters.
Grahic Jump Location
The tube bundle with P/D=3.3. Tubes 1 to 26 are instrumented in planes B and C to measure both the tube wall and the surrounding water temperatures (detail at lower right). Additionally, tubes 1, 13, 14, and 26 are instrumented to measure the tube wall and the surrounding water temperatures in planes A and D. All dimensions are in cm.
Grahic Jump Location
Temperatures in the enclosure for discharge with an initially isothermal enclosure (Run 1) for P/D=3.3
Grahic Jump Location
Water temperatures along the height (z axis) of initially stratified enclosures in discharge Runs 3, 8, and 13 with P/D=3.3, 2.4, and 1.5, respectively. The curves shown are polynomials fit to the data in Run 3.
Grahic Jump Location
Water temperature distributions along the height (z axis) of initially isothermal enclosures in discharge Runs 5, 9, and 15 for P/D=3.3, 2.4, and 1.5, respectively, at t=0.5 h
Grahic Jump Location
Consolidated natural convection heat transfer correlation for 240 tube bundles with P/D=1.5, 2.4, and 3.3 [Eq. (13)]. The correlation represents the data to ±20%.
Grahic Jump Location
Comparison of the correlations for the single tube, eight tube, and 240 tube bundles. The correlations for the single tube 3233 and for a bundle of 14 tubes 8 in an infinite medium are presented for comparison. The transition region where the 0.188<n<0.25 is inferred based on the present study.

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In