Thermal Characterization of Prototypical Integral Collector Storage Systems With Immersed Heat Exchangers

[+] Author and Article Information
W. Liu, J. H. Davidson, F. A. Kulacki

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Minnesota 11 Church Street, SE, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 USA

J. Sol. Energy Eng 127(1), 21-28 (Feb 07, 2005) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1824106 History: Received April 28, 2004; Revised May 10, 2004; Online February 07, 2005
Copyright © 2005 by ASME
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Conceptual drawing of an integral solar collector storage (ICS) system with an immersed tube bundle, or heat exchanger, for domestic water heating
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Geometry and boundary conditions of the experimental enclosure. The immersed tube bundle shown here is for illustration only. During discharge, pressurized water flows in the tubes. During charging, a uniform heat flux is applied at the top surface.
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Locations of the thermocouple junctions within the enclosure. Additional thermocouples are placed within the tube bundles as shown in Figs. 456. All dimensions are in centimeters. Dimensions along the z axis (x=0 cm) are the locations of thermocouples on the center (z-y) plane.
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The tube bundle with P/D=1.5. (a) Planes A, B, C, and D contain thermocouples for measurement of wall and fluid temperatures. Planes A to D are similarly located for P/D=2.4 and 3.3. (b) Locations of thermocouples in the bundle. To measure water temperature, gauge 36 type-T thermocouple wires are attached to the tube wall with epoxy and the junctions are located ∼1.6 mm from the tube wall and outside the thermal boundary layer on the tube. Wall temperatures are measured with gauge 36 type-T thermocouples junctions soldered to tube surface. Thermocouples attached to tubes 1, 2, 5, and 6 measure wall temperatures. Thermocouples attached to tubes 3 and 4 measure water temperatures within the bundle. Thermocouples 19 to 23 measure fluid temperature around the bundle. The thermocouples are represented as solid circles. All dimensions are in cm.
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The tube bundle with P/D=2.4. Tubes 1, 2, 5, and 6 are instrumented to measure the tube wall temperature. Tubes 3 and 4 are instrumented to measure the surrounding water temperature. Thermocouples 18, 19, and 21 to 23 measure water temperature near the center plane (x=0). All dimensions are in centimeters.
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The tube bundle with P/D=3.3. Tubes 1 to 26 are instrumented in planes B and C to measure both the tube wall and the surrounding water temperatures (detail at lower right). Additionally, tubes 1, 13, 14, and 26 are instrumented to measure the tube wall and the surrounding water temperatures in planes A and D. All dimensions are in cm.
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Temperatures in the enclosure for discharge with an initially isothermal enclosure (Run 1) for P/D=3.3
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Water temperatures along the height (z axis) of initially stratified enclosures in discharge Runs 3, 8, and 13 with P/D=3.3, 2.4, and 1.5, respectively. The curves shown are polynomials fit to the data in Run 3.
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Water temperature distributions along the height (z axis) of initially isothermal enclosures in discharge Runs 5, 9, and 15 for P/D=3.3, 2.4, and 1.5, respectively, at t=0.5 h
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Consolidated natural convection heat transfer correlation for 240 tube bundles with P/D=1.5, 2.4, and 3.3 [Eq. (13)]. The correlation represents the data to ±20%.
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Comparison of the correlations for the single tube, eight tube, and 240 tube bundles. The correlations for the single tube 3233 and for a bundle of 14 tubes 8 in an infinite medium are presented for comparison. The transition region where the 0.188<n<0.25 is inferred based on the present study.




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