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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Design of Controls to Attenuate Loads in the Controls Advanced Research Turbine

[+] Author and Article Information
Alan D. Wright

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 1617 Cole Blvd., Golden, CO 80401

Mark J. Balas

Department of Aerospace Engineering Science, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO 80309-0429

J. Sol. Energy Eng 126(4), 1083-1091 (Nov 18, 2004) (9 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1792654 History: Received January 15, 2004; Revised June 02, 2004; Online November 18, 2004
Copyright © 2004 by ASME
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References

Hinrichsen,  E. N., 1984, “Controls for Variable Pitch Wind Turbine Generators,” IEEE Trans. Power Appar. Syst., 103, pp. 886–892.
Barton, R. S., Bowler, C. E. J., and Piwko, R. J., 1979, Control and Stabilization of the NASA/DOE MOD-1 Two Megawatt Wind Turbine Generator, American Chemical Society, pp. 325–330.
Mattson, S. E., 1984, “Modeling and Control of Large Horizontal Axis Wind Power Plants,” Ph.D thesis. Lund, Sweden: Department of Automatic Control, Lund Institute of Technology.
Liebst,  B. S., 1983, “Pitch Control System for Large Scale Wind Turbines,” 7 , pp. 182–192.
Wright, A. D., 2003, “Control Design for Flexible Wind Turbines,” Ph.D Thesis, University of Colorado, Department of Aerospace Engineering Sciences.
Bossanyi, E. A., 2000, “Developments in Closed-Loop Controller Design for Wind Turbines,” Proceedings of the 2000 ASME Wind Energy Symposium, Reno, NV, 10–13 January, pp. 64–74.
Johnson, C. D., 1976, “Theory of Disturbance Accommodating Controllers,” in Advances in Control and Dynamic Systems, edited by C. T. Leondes, Academic Press, New York, San Francisco, and London, Vol. 12, pp. 387–489.
Stol, K., Rigney, B., and Balas, M., 2000, “Disturbance Accommodating Control of a Variable-Speed Turbine Using a Symbolic Dynamics Structural Model,” Proceedings of the 2000 ASME Wind Energy Symposium, Reno, NV, 10–13 January, pp. 84–90.
Wright, A. D. and Balas, M., 2002, “Design of State-Space-Based Control Algorithms for Wind Turbine Speed Regulation,” Proceeding of the 2002 ASME Wind Energy Symposium, Reno, NV, 14–17 January.
Stol, K., and Balas, M., 2002, “Periodic Disturbance Accommodating Control for Speed Regulation of Wind Turbines,” Proceeding of the 2002 ASME Wind Energy Symposium, Reno, NV, 14–17 January, pp. 310–320.
Stol, K., 2001, “Dynamics Modeling and Periodic Control of Horizontal-Axis Wind Turbines,” Ph.D thesis. University of Colorado, Department of Aerospace Engineering Sciences.
Jonkman, J. M., and Buhl, M. L., 2004, FAST User’s Guide. NREL Report NREL/EL-500-29798. National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO.
Balas,  M. J., 1980, “Disturbance Accommodating Controllers for Distributed Parameter Systems: An Introduction,” J. Interdisciplinary Modeling Simulation, pp. 63–81.
Balas, M. J., 1990, “Active Control of Persistent Disturbances in Large Precision Aerospace Structures,” SPIE Cont., Orlando, FL, April.
Balas, M. J., Lee, Y. J., and Kendall, L., 1998, “Disturbance Tracking Control Theory with Application to Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines.” Proceedings of the 1998 ASME Wind Energy Symposium, Reno, NV, 12–15 January, pp. 95–99.
Balas, M. J., Lee, Y. J., and Kendall, L., 1998, “Disturbance Tracking Control Theory with Application to Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines.” Proceedings of the 1998 ASME Wind Energy Symposium, Reno, NV, 12–15 January, pp. 95–99.
Wright, A. D., and Balas, M., 2003, “Design of Modern Controls for the Controlled Advanced Research Turbine,” Proceedings of the 2003 ASME Wind Energy Symposium, Reno, NV, 6–9 January, pp. 304–316.

Figures

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The Controls Advanced Research Turbine (CART)
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CART rotor aerodynamic torque versus blade pitch angle for various wind speeds
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Test wind applied to CART FAST models
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Simulated generator speed using controls designed from the three- and five-state models, simulated with blade first flap
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Simulated generator speed with DAC controller designed from three- and five-state models
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Simulated drive-train torque using controls designed from three-state model to add low and high damping to drive-train
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FAST simulated CART tower-top fore-aft deflection with turbulent inflow using DAC control to add high and low damping to tower fore-aft motion
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Simulated pitch rates using DAC control designed from seven-state model excited by turbulent inflow
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Simulated pitch rates, showing reduced pitch rates when generator torque control is used to add drive train damping
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Simulated CART electrical power, showing effects of using generator torque control
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Simulated generator speed and blade pitch, using independent blade pitch DAC designed from five-state model
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Simulated blade flap displacement excited by wind shear for old and new DAC independent blade pitch controller
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Simulated generator speed, using DAC designed from nine-state model, excited by turbulence
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Power spectral density of simulated tower-top fore-aft displacement, using DAC designed from nine-state model excited by turbulence
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Power spectral density of simulated blade-tip flap displacement, using DAC designed from nine-state model excited by turbulence
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Power spectral density of simulated shaft torque, using DAC designed from nine-state model excited by turbulence
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Simulated blade pitch rates for original gains and reduced gains using DAC designed from nine-state model

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