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TECHNICAL PAPERS

The Effect of Load Phase Angle on Wind Turbine Blade Fatigue Damage

[+] Author and Article Information
Darris L. White, Walt D. Musial

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO 80401

J. Sol. Energy Eng 126(4), 1050-1059 (Nov 18, 2004) (10 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1800533 History: Received June 20, 2004; Revised June 22, 2004; Online November 18, 2004
Copyright © 2004 by ASME
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References

Larwood, S., Musial, W., Freebury, G., and Beattie, A., “NedWind 25 Blade Testing at NREL for the European Standards Measurement and Testing Program,” NREL/TP-500-29103, March 2001.
Wilson, R. E., Freeman, L. N., Walker, S. N., and Harman, C. R., Users’ Manual for the FAST_AD Advanced Dynamics Code, OSU/NREL Report 95-01, September 1995.
Griffin, D. A., 2001, WindPACT Turbine Design Scaling Studies Technical Area 1—Composite Blades for 80- to 120-Meter Rotor; 21 March 2000–15 March 2001, p. 44; NICH Report NO. SR-500-29492.
Marco,  S., and Starkey,  W., 1954, “A Concept of Fatigue Damage,” Trans. ASME, 76 .
IEC 1999-02, IEC 61400-1: Wind Turbine Generator Systems, 1999.
Hartin, J. R., “Evaluation of Prediction Methodology for Blade Loads on a Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine,” 9th ASME Wind Energy Symposium, 1990, New Orleans, Louisiana, 14–18 January, 1990.
Miner,  A., 1945, “Cumulative Damage in Fatigue,” Trans. ASME, 67 .
Van Paepegem,  W., and Degrieck,  J., 2002, “Effects of Load Sequence and Block Loading on the Fatigue Response of Fibre-reinforced Componsites,” Mechanics of Advanced Materials and Structures, 9 .
Van Grol, H., and Bulder, B., 1994, Reference Procedure to Establish Fatigue Stresses for Large Size Wind Turbines: A State of the Art Report, Volume I: Main Body of the Report and Annexes, Netherlands Energy Research Foundation ECN, The Netherlands.
Hughes, S. D., Musial, W. D., and Stensland, T., “Implementation of a Two-axis Servo-hydraulic System for Full-scale fatigue Testing of Wind turbine Blades,” NREL/CP-500-26896, August 1999.
Mandell, J., Samborsky, D., Scott, M., and Cairns, D., “Effects of Structural Details on Delamination and Fatigue Life of Fiberglass Laminates,” AIAA-98-0061.
Wahl, N., Samborsky, D., Mandell, J., and Cairns, D., “Spectrum Fatigue Lifetime and Residual Strength for Fiberglass Laminates,” AIAA-2001-0025.
Schaff,  J., and Davidson,  B., 1967, “Life Prediction Methodology for Composite Structures. Part I—Constant Amplitude and Two Stress Level Fatigue,” J. Compos. Mater., 31 .
Schaff,  J., and Davidson,  B., 1997, “Life Prediction Methodology for Composite Structures. Part II—Spectrum Fatigue,” J. Compos. Mater., 31 .

Figures

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Example phase angle calculations
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Phase angles distribution for 9 m/s mean wind speed—1.5 MW turbine—IEC Class Ia site
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Mean phase angle as a function of average wind speed
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PDF for phase angle and wind speed for generic 1.5 MW blade
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Aggregate phase angle probability density function for generic 1.5 MW blade
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Phase angle time history for generic 1.5 MW blade
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Strain-cycle properties for fiberglass spar cap and skin material (see Ref. 8)
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Effect of load phase angle on equivalent alternating strain (15.75 m)
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Effect of load phase angle on damage accumulation (15.75 m)
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Accumulated damage for three different load phase angles (15.75 m)
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Variable phase angles (15.75 m)
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Material defect locations
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Comparison of damage accumulation defect at node 45 (15.75 m)—variable phase angle vs constant phase angle
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Normalized accumulated damage for fatigue tests with variable phase angles to constant 72 deg phase angle
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Comparison of one phase angle sequence to ten phase angle sequences
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Effect of the number of sequence repetitions on damage accumulation

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