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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Design and Verification of the Risø-B1 Airfoil Family for Wind Turbines

[+] Author and Article Information
Peter Fuglsang, Christian Bak, Mac Gaunaa, Ioannis Antoniou

Wind Energy Department, Risø National Laboratory, P.O. Box 49, DK-4000 Roskilde, Denmark

J. Sol. Energy Eng 126(4), 1002-1010 (Nov 18, 2004) (9 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1766024 History: Received January 01, 2004; Revised March 01, 2004; Online November 18, 2004
Copyright © 2004 by ASME
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References

Tangler, J. L., and Somers, D. M., 1995, “NREL Airfoil Families for HAWT’s,” Proc. WINDPOWER’95, Washington D.C., pp. 117–123.
Timmer, W. A., van Rooij, A., R.P.J.O.M., 2003, “Summary of the Delft University Wind Turbine Dedicated Airfoils,” AIAA-2003-0352.
Björk, A., 1990, “Coordinates and Calculations for the FFA-W1-xxx, FFA-W2-xxx and FFA-W3-.xxx Series of Airfoils for Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines,” FFA TN 1990-15, Stockholm, Sweden.
Hill, D. M., and Garrad, A. D., 1988, “Design of Aerofoils for Wind Turbine Use,” Proc. IEA Symposium on Aerodynamics of Wind Turbines, Lyngby, Denmark.
Chaviaropoulos,  P., Bouras,  B., Leoutsakos,  G., and Papailiou,  K. D., 1993, “Design of Optimized Profiles for Stall Regulated HAWTs Part 1: Design Concepts and Method Formulation,” Wind Eng., 17, (6) pp. 275–287.
Hoadley, D., Madsen, H. A., and Bouras, B., 1993, “Aerofoil Section Design and Assessment,” Final Rep. Contract JOUR 0079, The European Comisión DGXII.
Fuglsang, P., and Bak, C., 2004, “Development of the Risø Wind Turbine Airfoils,” J. Wind Energy, 7 , pp. 145–162.
Fuglsang, P., and Dahl, K. S., 1997, “Multipoint Optimization of Thick High Lift Airfoil Wind Turbines,” Proc. EWEC’97, Dublin, Ireland, pp. 468–471.
Hicks, R. M., Murman, E. M., and Vanderplaats, G. N., 1974, “An Assessment of Airfoil Design by Numerical Optimization,” Tech. rep., NASA TM X-3092.
Fuglsang, P., Bak, C., Gaunaa, M., and Antoniou, I., 2003, “Wind tunnel Tests of Risø-B1-18 and Risø-B1-24,” Risø-R-1375(EN), Risø National Laboratory, Denmark, January.
Bak, C., Fuglsang, P., Gaunaa, M., and Antoniou, I., 2003, “Wind Tunnel Measurements on Two Risø-B1 Airfoils,” Proc. EWEC’2003, Madrid.
Fuglsang, P., Antoniou, I., Sørensen, N. N., and Madsen H., 1998, “Validation of a Wind Tunnel Testing Facility for Blade Surface Pressure Measurements,” Risø-R-981(EN), Risø National Laboratory, Denmark.
Drela, M., 1989, “XFOIL, An Analysis and Design system for Low Reynolds Number Airfoils,” Low Reynolds Number Aerodynamics, 54 In Springer-Verlag Lec. Notes in Eng.
Michelsen, J. A., 1992, “Basis3D—A Platform for Development of Multiblock PDE Solvers,” Technical Report AFM 92-05, Technical University of Denmark.
Michelsen, J. A., 1994, “Block Structured Multigrid Solution of 2D and 3D elliptic PDE’s.” Technical Report AFM 94-06, Technical University of Denmark.
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Bertagnolio, F., Sørensen, N. N., Johansen, J., and Fuglsang, P., 2001, “Wind Turbine Airfoil Catalogue,” Risø-R-1280(EN), Risø National Laboratory, Denmark, pp. 152.
Sørensen, N. N., Michelsen, J. A., and Schreck, S., Navier-Stokes Predictions of the NREL Phase VI Rotor in the NASA Ames 80 ft×120 ft Wind Tunnel. J. Wind Energy 2002; 5:151–169.
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Figures

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Force coefficients and blade twist for an airfoil section on a wind turbine rotor blade
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Wind tunnel test section with test stand. The wake rake is downstream of the airfoil section.
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Risø-B1 airfoil shapes, maximum t/c∊[15%,36%]
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Risø-B1-18 predicted cl and cd for clean airfoil flow at Re=6×106
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Risø-B1-18 predicted ct and cn for clean airfoil flow at Re=6×106
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Risø-B1-18 predicted variation of cl/cd and cl,max calculated with EllipSys2D
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Risø-B1-24 predicted cl and cd for clean airfoil flow at Re=6×106
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Risø-B1-24 predicted ct and cn for clean airfoil flow at Re=6×106
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Risø-B1-18 measured and predicted CP for clean airfoil flow at Re=1.6×106
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Risø-B1-18 measured and predicted cl and cd for clean airfoil flow at Re=1.6×106
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Risø-B1-18 measured cl and cd with leading edge roughness: Zig-zag tape at 5% chord on the suction side and 10% chord on the pressure side (ZZT 5%/10%), zig-zag tape at the leading edge onto the suction side (ZZT S.S.) compared with clean airfoil flow at Re=1.6×106
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Risø-B1-18 measured cl and cd with stall strips on the pressure side at 1%, 2% and 3% chord compared with clean airfoil flow at Re=1.6×106
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Risø-B1-24 measured and predicted CP for clean airfoil flow at Re=1.6×106
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Risø-B1-24 measured and predicted cl and cd at Re=1.6×106
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Risø-B1-24 measured cl and cd with leading edge roughness: Zig-zag tape at 5% chord on the suction side and 10% chord on the pressure side (ZZT 5%/10%), zig-zag tape at the leading edge onto the suction side (ZZT S.S.) compared with clean airfoil flow at Re=1.6×106
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Risø-B1-24 measured cl and cd with vortex generators at 15% chord (VG 15%), 20% chord (VG 20%) and 25% chord (VG 25%) at Re=1.6×106
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Risø-B1-24 measured cl and cd with triangular Gurney flaps of different height at Re=1.6×106
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Risø-B1-24 measured cl and cd with vortex generators (VG 20%) and vortex generators and triangular Gurney flaps in combination (VG 20% GF 1%) at Re=1.6×106

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