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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Wind Tunnel Aerodynamic Tests of Six Airfoils for Use on Small Wind Turbines

[+] Author and Article Information
Michael S. Selig, Bryan D. McGranahan

Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801

J. Sol. Energy Eng 126(4), 986-1001 (Nov 18, 2004) (16 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1793208 History: Received March 01, 2004; Revised June 28, 2004; Online November 18, 2004
Copyright © 2004 by ASME
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References

Oerlemans, S., and Migliore, P., 2004, “Wind Tunnel Aeroacoustic Tests on Six Airfoils for Use on Small Wind Turbines,” NREL/SR-500-34470.
Selig, M. S., Guglielmo, J. J., Broeren, A. P., and Giguère, P., 1995, Summary of Low-Speed Airfoil Data, SoarTech, Virginia Beach, VA, Vol. 1.
Lyon, C. A., Broeren, A. P., Giguère, P., Gopalarathnam, A., and Selig, M. S., 1998, Summary of Low-Speed Airfoil Data, SoarTech, Virginia Beach, VA, Vol. 3.
McGranahan, B. D., and Selig, M. S., 2004, “Wind Tunnel Aerodynamic Tests on Six Airfoils for Use on Small Wind Turbines,” NREL/SR-500-34515.
Guglielmo,  J. J., and Selig,  M. S., 1996, “Spanwise Variations in Profile Drag for Airfoils at Low Reynolds Numbers,” J. Aircraft,33, pp. 699–707.
McGhee, R. J., Walker, B. S., and Millard, B. F., 1988, “Experimental Results for the Eppler 387 Airfoil at Low Reynolds Numbers in the Langley Low-Turbulence Pressure Tunnel,” NASA TM-4062.
Rae, W. H., Jr., and Pope, A., 1984, Low-Speed Wind Tunnel Testing, Wiley, New York. ISBN 0-471-87402-7.
Bragg, M. B., and Lu, B., 2000, “Experimental Investigation of Airfoil Drag Measurement With Simulated Leading-Edge Ice Using the Wake Survey Method,” AIAA Pap. 2000-3919.
Evangelista, R., McGhee, R. J., and Walker, B. S., 1989, “Correlation of Theory to Wind-Tunnel Data at Reynolds Numbers Below 500,000,” Low Reynolds Number Aerodynamics, edited by T. J. Mueller, Lecture Notes in Engineering, Vol. 54, Springer, New York, pp. 131–145. ISBN 3-540-51884-3.
Briley,  R. W., and McDonald,  H., 1975, “Numerical Prediction of Incompressible Separation Bubbles,” J. Fluid Mech., 69, pp. 631–656.
Kwon,  O. K., and Pletcher,  R. H., 1919, “Prediction of Incompressible Separated Boundary Layers Including Viscous-Inviscid Interaction,” Trans ASME,101, pp. 466–472.
Davis, R. L., and Carter, J. E., 1984, “Analysis of Airfoil Transitional Separation Bubbles,” NASA CR-3791.
Walker, G. J., Subroto, P. H., and Platzer, M. F., 1988, “Transition Modeling Effects on Viscous/Inviscid Interaction Analysis of Low Reynolds Number Airfoil Flows Involving Laminar Separation Bubbles,” ASME Paper, 88-GT-32.
Huebsch, W. W., and Rothmayer, A. P., 1998, “The Effects of Small-Scale Surface Roughness on Laminar Airfoil-Scale Trailing Edge Separation Bubbles,” AIAA Pap. 98-0103.
Alam,  M., and Sandham,  N. D., 2000, “Direct Numerical Simulation of ‘Short’ Laminar Separation Bubbles With Turbulent Reattachment,” J. Fluid Mech., 403, pp. 223–250.
Lin,  J. C. M., and Pauley,  L. L., 1996, “Low-Reynolds-Number Separation on an Airfoil,” AIAA J., 34, pp. 1570–1577.
Selig, M. S., Donovan, J. F., and Fraser, D. B., 1989, Airfoils at Low Speeds, Soartech 8, SoarTech, Virginia Beach, VA.
Somers, D. M., 1992, “Subsonic Natural-Laminar-Flow Airfoils,” Natural Laminar Flow and Laminar Flow Control, edited by R. W. Barnwell and M. Y. Hussaini, Springer, New York, pp. 143–176.
Althaus, D., and Wortmann, F. X., 1981, Stuttgarter Profilkatalog I, Friedr. Vieweg & Sohn, Braunschweig/Weisbaden.
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Broeren, A. P., and Bragg, M. B., 2001, “Unsteady Stalling Characteristics of Thin Airfoils at Low Reynolds Numbers,” Fixed and Flapping Wing Aerodynamics for Micro Air Vehicle Applications, edited by T. J. Mueller, Progress in Astronautics and Aeronautics Vol. 195, AIAA, New York, pp. 191–213.

Figures

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UIUC low-speed subsonic wind tunnel
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Experimental setup (Plexiglas splitter plates and traverse enclosure box not shown for clarity)
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Airfoils tested and their corresponding average error in inches for the 12-in. chord models presented in this study
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Turbulence intensity at tunnel centerline, empty test section and with rig in place
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Dynamic pressure variation across test section with the test rig installed
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Illustration of the seven-hole probe used for flow angle measurements
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Combined pitch and yaw angle across test section with the rig installed
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Representative upper-surface oil flow visualization on the E387 (E), Re=300,000, α=5 deg. (Flow is from left to right and the tape indicates the chordwise distance from the airfoil leading edge.)
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Conceptual illustration of the relationship between the surface oil flow features and skin friction distribution in the region of a laminar separation bubble plotted against the airfoil arc length coordinate s/c
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Comparison of major E387 (E) upper-surface flow features between UIUC and LTPT for Re=200,000
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Comparison of major E387 (E) upper-surface flow features between UIUC and LTPT for Re=300,000
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Comparison between UIUC and LTPT E387 lift and moment coefficient data for Re=100,000, 200,000, 300,000, and 460,000
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Comparison between UIUC and LTPT E387 drag coefficient data for Re=100,000, 200,000, 300,000, and 460,000
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Boundary layer trip geometry used to simulate the effects of leading edge debris and errosion (dimensions are in inches)
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Drag polar for the E387 (E)
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Drag polar for the E387 (E) with trip type F
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Drag polar for the FX 63-137 (C)
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Drag polar for the FX 63-137 (C) with trip type F
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Drag polar for the S822 (B)
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Drag polar for the S822 (B) with trip type F
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Drag polar for the S834
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Drag polar for the S834 with trip type F
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Drag polar for the SD2030 (B)
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Drag polar for the SD2030 (B) with trip type F
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Drag polar for the SH3055
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Drag polar for the SH3055 with trip type F

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