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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Natural Convection From a Tube Bundle in a Thin Inclined Enclosure

[+] Author and Article Information
W. Liu, J. H. Davidson, F. A. Kulacki

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455

J. Sol. Energy Eng 126(2), 702-709 (May 04, 2004) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1677432 History: Received July 01, 2003; Revised November 01, 2003; Online May 04, 2004
Copyright © 2004 by ASME
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References

Bourne, D., Lee, E., Callaway, D., and Plaisted, J., 2003, “Design and Development of a Low Cost ICS Solar Water Heater,” Solar 2003, Proceedings of the 32nd American Solar Energy Society Annual Conference, Austin, TX, R. Campbell-Howe, Ed., CDROM.
Liu, W., Davidson, J. H., and Kulacki, F. A., 2001, “Natural Convection From a Single Tube Immersed in a Tilted Thin Enclosure,” Proceedings, International Conference on Energy Conversion and Application, Huazhong University of Science and Technology Press, Wuhan, China, W. Liu Ed., Vol. 1, pp. 408-413.
Liu,  W., Davidson,  J. H., Kulacki,  F. A., and Mantell,  S. C., 2003, “Natural Convection From a Horizontal Tube Heat Exchanger Immersed in a Tilted Enclosure,” ASME J. Sol. Energy Eng., 125, pp. 67–75.
Morgan, V. T., 1975, “The Overall Convective Heat Transfer From Smooth Circular Cylinders,” Advances in Heat Transfer, Vol. 11, Hartnett, J., and Irvine, T., Eds., John Wiley, New York, pp. 199–264.
Liu, W., 2003, “Natural Convection Heat Transfer From Horizontal Tube Bundles Immersed in Tilted Thin Enclosures,” Doctoral Dissertation Mechanical Engineering, University of Minnesota, 2003.
Wu, L., and Bannerot, R. B., 1987, “Experimental Study of the Effect of Water Extraction on Thermal Stratification in Storage,” Proceedings of the 1987 ASME-JSME-JSES Solar Energy Conference, Honolulu, HI, Vol. 1, pp. 445–451.
Eckert, E. R. G., and Soehngen, E., 1948, “Studies on Heat Transfer in Laminar Free Convection With the Zehnder-Mach Interferometer,” Air Force Technical Report No. 5747, U.S.A.F., Air Material Command, Dayton, Ohio.
Sparrow,  E. M., and Boessneck,  D. S., 1983, “Effect of Transverse Misalignment on Natural Convection Form a Pair or Parallel, Vertically Stacked, Horizontal Cylinders,” J. Heat Transfer, 105, pp. 241–247.
Tillman, E. S., 1976, “Natural Convection Heat Transfer From Horizontal Tube Bundles,” Proceedings, ASME-AIChE Heat Transfer Conference, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York, Paper No. 76-HT-35.
Choi,  K., and Cha,  S., 1990, “Plume-Rise Effect on Natural Convection Heat Transfer in Staggered Arrays of Circular Heating Elements,” J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer, 4, pp. 228–232.

Figures

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System concept for an unpressurized integral collector storage water heating system. The immersed heat exchanger is a tube bundle, or heat exchanger, e.g., for domestic hot water.
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Cross section of the experimental ICS with immersed tube bundle. Dimensions shown are in units of cm. H/H′ =3.3.
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(a) Thermocouple locations within the enclosure. Dimensions are shown in units of cm. (b) locations of the thermocouples (TCs. 18 to 35) to measure water temperatures within the tube bundle. Thermocouples are represented as solid circles. Notches in tube walls are locations of imbedded thermocouples.
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Centerline temperature distributions (x=0, y=5.08 cm) for charging an initially isothermal enclosure at 27°C with no heat transfer and a heat flux of 900 W/m2 (Run 1). Data points for the eight-tube case are based on readings of TCs. 7–10, 14, and 18–21. At t=8 h, ST of the entire enclosure is 182°C2 . For a single tube heat exchanger, ST of the entire enclosure is 177°C2 after 7 h of charging.
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Temperatures during discharge of an initially isothermal enclosure (Run 3). Cooling proceeds generally uniformly over the entire enclosure except above the tube bundle (TC 21 and 22). See Fig. 3 for locations of thermocouples.
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Temperatures along the mid y-z plane (x=0) for 0.4<t<0.9 h during discharge (Run 3)
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Temperature differences that drive natural convection during discharge of an initially isothermal enclosure without heat input (Run 3)
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Temperatures in the enclosure for combined charge with discharge with an initially isothermal enclosure (Run 8). The applied heat flux is 900 W/m2 .
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Temperature distribution along the horizontal line in the mid y-z plane (x=0) for t=0.4 to 0.9 h in the combined charge with discharge experiment (Run 8)
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Time-averaged temperatures for Run 8. Values inside the tubes are average tube outer wall temperature. All temperatures are in °C.
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Nusselt and Rayleigh number data for Runs 2 to 9. The dashed lines show the ±15% band of the correlation. The uncertainty in the Nusselt and Rayleigh numbers is ±2% at RaD=1.4×107 and ±10% at RaD=4.0×105.

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