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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Experimental Investigation of the Solar Carbothermic Reduction of ZnO Using a Two-cavity Solar Reactor

[+] Author and Article Information
T. Osinga, A. Steinfeld

ETH-Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Department of Mechanical and Process Engineering, ETH-Zentrum, CH-8092 Zurich, Switzerland

U. Frommherz

Solar Process Technology, Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen, Switzerland

C. Wieckert

Solar Process Technology, Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen, Switzerland

J. Sol. Energy Eng 126(1), 633-637 (Feb 12, 2004) (5 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1639001 History: Received May 01, 2003; Revised May 01, 2003; Online February 12, 2004
Copyright © 2004 by ASME
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References

Steinfeld, A., and Palumbo, R., 2001, “Solar Thermochemical Process Technology,” Encyclopedia of Physical Science and Technology, R. A. Meyers ed., Academic Press, 15 , pp. 237–256.
Steinfeld,  A., 2002, “Solar Hydrogen Production via a 2-step Water-Splitting Thermochemical Cycle based on Zn/ZnO Redox Reactions,” Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 27, pp. 611–619.
Adinberg, R., and Epstein, M., 2002, “Experimental Study of Solar Reactors for Carboreduction of ZnO,” Proc. 11th SolarPaces Int. Symposium Zurich, pp. 277–286.
Steinfeld,  A., Brack,  M., Meier,  A., Weidenkaff,  A., and Wuillemin,  D., 1998, “A Solar Chemical Reactor for the Co-Production of Zinc and Synthesis Gas,” Energy (Oxford), 23, pp. 803–814.
Kräupl,  S., and Steinfeld,  A., 2001, “Experimental Investigation of a Vortex-Flow Solar Chemical Reactor for the Combined ZnO-Reduction and CH4-Reforming,” J. Sol. Energy Eng., 123, pp. 237–243.
Zoxy Energy Systems AG, http://www.zoxy.net/
Wieckert, C., Epstein, M., Olalde, G., Palumbo, R., Pauling, H. J., Reichardt, H. U., Robert, J. F., Santen, S., and Steinfeld, A., 2002, “The SOLZINC-Project for Solar Carbothermic Production of Zn from ZnO,” Proc. 11th SolarPaces Int. Symposium Zurich, pp. 239–245.
Berman,  A., and Epstein,  M., 1999, “The Kinetic Model for Carboreduction of Zinc Oxide,” J. of Physics IV, France, 9, pp. 319–324.
Boustead, I., and Dove, W. T., 1998, “Ecoprofile of Primary Zinc Production, Report for the Int. Zinc Association, Brussels.
Wieckert,  C., and Steinfeld,  A., 2002, “Solar Thermal Reduction of ZnO Using CH4:ZnO and C:ZnO Molar Ratios Less than 1,” J. Sol. Energy Eng., 124, pp. 55–62.
Haueter,  P., Seitz,  T., and Steinfeld,  A., 1999, “A New High-Flux Solar Furnace for High-Temperature Thermochemical Research,” J. Sol. Energy Eng., 121, pp. 77–80.
Hirsch,  D., v. Zedtwitz,  P., Osinga,  T., Kinamore,  J., and Steinfeld,  A., 2003, “A New 75 kW High-Flux Solar Simulator For High-Temperature Thermal and Thermochemical Research,” J. Sol. Energy Eng., 125, 117–120.
Yogev,  A., Kribus,  A., Epstein,  M., and Kogan,  A., 1998, “Solar “Tower Reflector” Systems: A new Approach for High-Temperature Solar Plants,” Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 23, pp. 239–245.
Wieckert,  C., Meier,  A., and Steinfeld,  A., 2003, “On Indirectly Irradiated Solar Receiver Reactors for High-Temperature Thermochemical Processes,” J. Sol. Energy Eng., 125, 120–123.
Tschudi,  H.-R., and Morian,  G., Tschudi,  H.-R., 2001, “Pyrometric Temperature Measurements in Solar Furnaces,” ASME J. Sol. Energy Eng., 123, pp. 164–170.
Wieckert, C., Palumbo, R., and Frommherz, U., 2002, “A Two Cavity Reactor for Solar Chemical Processes: Heat Transfer Model and Application to Carbothermic Reduction of ZnO,” Proc. 11th SolarPaces Int. Symposium Zurich, 2002, pp. 287–299 and 2004, Energy, The Int. J., in press.
Osinga, T., 2002, “Experimental Investigation of a Two-Cavity Solar Chemical Reactor for Carbothermic Reduction of ZnO,” Diploma Thesis, ETH Zurich.

Figures

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Optical Scheme at PSI’s Solar Furnace
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Optical Scheme at ETH’s High-Flux Solar Simulator
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Scheme of solar reactor configuration
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H-T diagram of the ZnO+C process for a stoichiometric molar mixture
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Solar power input, reactor temperature, and product gas flow rates during a representative batch run with 500 g of ZnO-C mixture (C:ZnO molar ratio 0.8:1), using beech charcoal as reducing agent. The solar blind pyrometer used to record the inner cavity temperature operates at above 800 K.
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Energy balance for 3 batch runs at PSI’s solar furnace, in terms of percent of Qsolar
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Reaction rates versus temperature for different carrier gas flows, carbon materials (beech charcoal, activated charcoal and petcoke) and C:ZnO ratios
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Influence of the stochiometric molar ratio C:ZnO on the integral chemical conversion of ZnO to Zn within tests of 32 min

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