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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Solar Fixation of Atmospheric Nitrogen

[+] Author and Article Information
Michael Epstein, Rudi Bertocchi, Jacob Karni

Solar Research Facilities Unit, Weizmann Institute of Science, P.O. Box 26, Rehovot 76100, Israel

J. Sol. Energy Eng 126(1), 626-632 (Feb 12, 2004) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1636190 History: Received January 01, 2003; Revised April 01, 2003; Online February 12, 2004
Copyright © 2004 by ASME
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References

Keleti, C. (ed.), 1985, Nitric Acid and Fertilizer Nitrates, Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, NY.
Ermenc,  E. D., 1956, “Wisconsin Process: Pebble Furnace Fixes Atmospheric Nitrogen,” Chem. Eng. Prog., 52(4), pp. 149–153.
Treharne, R. W., 1978, “Nitrogen Fertilizer Production by Solar Thermal Energy,” Proc. of SERI-DOE Workshop on Solar High Temperature Industrial Processes, Atlanta, GA, USA.
Lapicque,  F., Lédé,  J., Tironneau,  P., and Villermaux,  J., 1985, “A Solar Reactor for High-Temperature Gas Phase Reactions (Water and Carbon Dioxide Thermolysis and Nitric Oxide Synthesis),” Sol. Energy, 35, pp. 153–166.
Bertocchi,  R., 2002, “Carbon Particle Cloud Generation for a Solar Particles Receiver,” J. Sol. Energy Eng., 124, pp. 230–236.
Bertocchi, R., Karni, J., and Kribus, A., 2002, “Experimental Evaluation of a Non-Isothermal High Temperature Solar Particles Receiver,” Proc. of 11th Solar PACES Int. Symp., Zürich, Switzerland, pp. 135–145.
Roine, A., 2002, HSC Chemistry for Windows—User’s Guide, Version 5.0, Outokumpu, Pori, Finland.
Zeldovich,  Y. B., 1946, “The Oxidation of Nitrogen in Combustion and Explosions,” Acta Physiochim. (URSS),21, pp. 577–628.
Hanson, R. K., and Salimian, S., 1984, “Survey of Rate Constants in the N/H/O System,” Combustion Chemistry, W. C. Gardiner, Jr. (ed.), Springer-Verlag, New York, NY, pp. 361–421.
Kennard, E. H. (ed.), 1938, Kinetic Theory of Gases, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY.
Funken,  K.-H., Lüpfert,  E., Hermes,  M., Brühne,  K., and Pohlmann,  B., 1999, “Oxidation Rates of Carbon Black Particles Exposed to Concentrated Solar Sunlight,” Sol. Energy, 65, pp. 15–19.
Modest, M. F., 1993, Radiative Heat Transfer, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, pp. 383–432.
Bertocchi, R., 2002, “Solar Radiation to Thermal Energy Conversion in a Non-Isothermal Particle Laden Gas Flow at Very High Temperatures,” Ph.D. Thesis, Dept. of Environmental Sciences and Energy Research, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel.
Shakti,  G., Molina,  A., and Sarofim,  A. F., 2002, “Factors Influencing the Time-Resolved Evolution of NO, HCN, and N2O During Char Oxidation at Fluidized Bed Conditions,” Energy Fuels, 16, pp. 823–830.
Karni,  J., Kribus,  A., Rubin,  R., Doron,  P., Fiterman,  A., and Sagie,  D., 1997, “The DIAPR: A High-Pressure, High-Temperature Solar Receiver,” J. Sol. Energy Eng., 119, pp. 74–78.
Karni,  J., Kribus,  A., Ostraich,  B., and Kochavi,  E., 1998, “A High-Pressure Window for Volumetric Solar Receivers,” J. Sol. Energy Eng., 120, pp. 101–107.
Kribus,  A., Doron,  P., Rubin,  R., Reuven,  R., Taragan,  E., Duchan,  S., and Karni,  J., 2001, “Performance of the Directly Irradiated Annular Pressurized Receiver (DIAPR) Operating at 20 Bar and 1200°C,” J. Sol. Energy Eng., 123, pp. 10–17.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Equilibrium composition for N2/O2=0.8/0.2
Grahic Jump Location
Equilibrium composition for N2/O2=0.5/0.5
Grahic Jump Location
Geometrical parameters used in the enhanced limiting sphere method for calculating the heat transfer between a particle and the surrounding gas
Grahic Jump Location
Calculated transient heating of a 1 μm black particle and the surrounding argon gas irradiated by 7 MW/m2 of solar radiation
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Schematic layout of the particle receiver
Grahic Jump Location
Effect of mass flow rate on exit gas temperature
Grahic Jump Location
Calculated axial gas velocity of nitrogen; the gas temperature axial variation is assumed similar to walls; residence time is integrated from velocity; acceleration in cylindrical part is due to expansion and in conical part to area contraction
Grahic Jump Location
A scheme for solar fixation of atmospheric nitrogen and generation of electricity

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