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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Polymers for Solar Domestic Hot Water: Long-Term Performance of PB and Nylon 6,6 Tubing in Hot Water

[+] Author and Article Information
Chunhui Wu, Susan C. Mantell, Jane Davidson

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Minnesota, 111 Church St SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455

J. Sol. Energy Eng 126(1), 581-586 (Feb 12, 2004) (6 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1638786 History: Received April 01, 2003; Revised April 01, 2003; Online February 12, 2004
Copyright © 2004 by ASME
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References

Davidson, J. H., Mantell, S. C., Kulacki, F. A., Liu, W., and Wu, C., 2002, “Mechanical and Thermal Performance of Polymer Heat Exchangers for Solar Hot Water,” International Conference on Heat Transfer, Grenoble, France.
Liu, W., Davidson, J., Kulacki, F., and Mantell, S. C., 2002, “Natural Convection of a Horizontal Tube Heat Exchanger Immersed in a Tilted Enclosure,” Solar 2002, the 2002 American Solar Energy Conference, Reno, NV.
Raman,  R., Mantell,  S. C., Davidson,  J. H., Wu,  C., and Jorgensen,  G., 2000, “A Review of Polymer Materials for Solar Water Heating Systems,” J. Sol. Energy Eng., 122, pp. 92–100.
ASTM, 2000, Standard D2837: Obtaining Hydrostatic Design Basis for Thermoplastic Pipe Materials, American Society of Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, PA.
PPI, 2000, “Hydrostatic Design Bases and Maximum Recommended Hydrostatic Design Stresses for Thermoplastic Piping Materials,” Report #TR-4, Plastic Pipe Institute, Washington D. C.
Schapery,  R. A., 1969, “On the Characterization of Nonlinear Viscoelastic Materials,” Polym. Eng. Sci., 9(4), pp. 294–310.
ASTM, 1996, Standard D2581: Standard Specification for Polybutylene (PB) Plastics Molding and Extrusion Materials, American Society of Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, PA.
ASTM, 1996, Standard D4066: Standard Specification for Nylon Injection and Extrusion Materials, American Society of Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, PA.

Figures

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Schematic of an integrated collector storage (ICS) system solar domestic hot water applications
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Schematic of experimental apparatus used to conduct creep tests
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DMA temperature sweep of Basell PB 4137 Gray. The data show that above 100°C mechanical stiffness degrades significantly
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Creep data for PB at 82°C and 5% relative humidity
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Creep compliance master curve for polybutylene at 82°C, 3.16MPa, and 5% RH
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Stress shift factor as a function of stress ratio used in creating PB master curve.
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Comparison of creep data for PB specimens tested at 5% (dry) and 99% (wet) relative humidity
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DMA temperature sweep of Dupont Zytel 122 (Nylon 6,6)
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Creep data; strain vs. time, at a constant stress level of 10.4 MPa for nylon in a 5% RH environment
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Master curve of creep compliance for nylon in a 5% RH environment
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Creep compliance curves for nylon at 82°C in a dry (5% RH) and wet (99% RH) environment
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Plot of strain in 10 years as a function of the tube hoop stress. Plot lines are derived from equations 5 (polybutylene) and 7 (nylon)

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